Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson Born to Irish immigrants on March 15, 1767, Andrew Jackson was to become the first “rags to riches” President the country had ever seen. He grew up in South Carolina and fought in the Revolutionary War at only thirteen. His entire immediate family, parents and siblings, died as a cause of the war, whether it was being killed in battle or death from disease. He went on to serve two terms as the seventh President of the U.S., leaving behind a legacy of administrative policy and even his own democratic philosophy. The Second Bank of the United States was founded in Philadelphia in 1816.

It was mainly a Republican project and a response to the expiration of the First U.S. Bank’s charter. It was created as a safe place for federal funds, and because state banks were seen as insufficient for handling financial needs. Currency differed by state, counterfeit money was everywhere, and state banks often issued notes without any gold or silver, the only trusted currency, to back them up. The bank was not met everywhere on friendly terms. Maryland, in an effort to destroy the Baltimore branch, passed laws to heavily tax it, but the Supreme Court removed those laws, strengthening the central federal power.

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The Second Bank’s charter expired during Jackson’s administration in 1836. Most people were distrustful of the bank, as it had enormous power to ruin state banks and was basically unresponsive to the people’s needs. It had powerful political influence also, and was completely controlled by one man, the President Nicholas Biddle. The rechartering was scheduled by the bank-influenced Congress to coincide with the 1832 Presidential campaign and election, in which Jackson would be running for a second term. The purpose was to gather up public pressure to have him pass the charter in order to gain reelection. However, Jackson was a bit more principled than that, and vetoed the bill.

Congress was unable to override his veto. The rechartering then became Jackson’s most important issue in running for President. He said it went further than just allowing a bank – it symbolized special privileges and economic power. The plan to give the bank influence over the entire country’s government completely backfired as Jackson was reelected. He took proper steps to make sure the bank would never have the same powers or influence again.

He took federal money out of the bank to distribute it in trustworthy state chartered banks. With no money to hold it up, the Second U.S. Bank collapsed and disappeared. With Jackson shutting down the bank, he showed his tolerance for the supreme power of the constitution and financially restricted government. One could go so far as to say that human rights were involved because Biddle gave the common people a hard time about loans and interest rates.

Jackson was pushing for the people of this country! Indian Removal was Jackson’s policy for making room for white settlers between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. The Indian culture was told to either assimilate or move west. Any formalized rituals became illegal, as did tribal councils or any Indian attempt to set laws for themselves, as they had in the past. They were now forced to abide by white laws and culture. Jackson was looking to expand commerce, population, and agriculture.

He saw it in the west, a vast supply of land and economic improvement. His attitude towards the Indians can consistently enough be seen back in the War of 1812, as not only did he slaughter them in battle but stole the land of those who had fought with him. But he could tolerate the Indians, if they were civilized enough, so by giving the Indians individual rights to property he also gave them the basis for Western capitalism. His ideas on Indian Removal did become a legacy of administrative policy, at least for some time, after he left office. His successor, President Martin van Buren, removed thousands of Indians and pushed them westward.

Those allowed to stay in their original homes were small, select groups such as the Iroquois Confederation in New York or those who agreed to abide by white law. Any of those who willfully went out west were promised land and financial support from the federal government. It is doubtful that they ever received either, except for land of poor quality that no respectable white farmers would take. Arguably, white expansion was not to blame. Reputedly white frontiersmen and Indian tribes lived amongst each other, not in competition, but in friendship. Rather, Indian Removal was caused by “industrialization and commerce, the growth of population, of railroads and cities, the rise in value of land, and the greed of businessmen.” In other words, western capitalism. This would make some degree of sense, considering that white frontiersmen heading west and Indian tribes were basically looking for the same things to survive on. Jackson and the federal government clearly showed no compassion for human rights, and it shows a sharp contrast to what Jackson fought for earlier, in terms of the Second U.S.

Bank. In a way, he contradicts himself by feeding land to the very same rich businessmen he had previously been wary of. He indirectly not only goes against his said ideology, but his actions that corresponded with that ideology as well. Today, we identify him with this ideology, called Jacksonian Democracy. Jacksonian Democracy takes its roots from Jeffersonian Democracy – President Thomas Jefferson’s idea of an agrarian society with a small, central government designed with the people’s benefits in mind. Jacksonian Democracy is basically the belief in the independence and responsibility of man.

They definitely feared large government, and powerful government, and went so far as to say that compulsory education was an infringement on the parent’s independent right to educate their children. The Jacksonians, as the outsiders called them, and as they probably called themselves, feared government involvement in the economy, declaring that it gave way to special interests and monopolies. Mainly, they were in some ways much like the Republicans of today – pushing for the return of traditional values and responsibility of the productive man. In some ways, Andrew Jackson’s philosophy was successful, and some ways it wasn’t. It was a bit too late to suddenly shift the United States into an agricultural society of productive white Christian men (let’s face it, we can’t ALL be good Christians), but he did succeed in terms of dwindling corporate influence and reducing federal government, two problems that still remain with us today. His idealistic approach to the Presidency proved to be both helpful and harmful, but that’s what happens when you have strong ideology.

The Bibliography Part Meltzer, Milton. Andrew Jackson and his America. New York: Franklin Watts, 1993. pg. 123-133. Norton, Mary Beth; Kaztman, David; Escott, Paul; Chudacoff, Howard; Paterson, Thomas; Tuttle, William.

A People and A Nation: A History of the United States. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1994. pg. 379-386. Zinn, Howard.

A People’s History of the United States. Publication company, year and city of publication unknown. pg. 124-146.

Andrew Jackson

The Crucible
Many years ago, the culture and atmosphere was amazingly different. The expectations of people and communities are extremely high. During the Puritan times, many laws and regulations existed pertaining to government, religion, and witchcraft. In the play, The Crucible, by Arthur Miller, the one word that best describes the Puritan beliefs and the community structure is strict.

The Puritan government during the time of this play is a theocracya government of God, run by the town’s minister. This means that the people cannot elect their own leaders. In The Crucible, the minister of the town is Reverend Samuel Parris. Mr. Herrick says to Danforth, “Mr. Parris command me, sir. I cannot deny him.” This shows that he, Mr. Parris, holds a definite authority over Mr. Herrick. In this theocracy, the people have to obey the minister and his appointed colleagues no matter what. The townspeople will be condemned by the government if they can not recite the Ten Commandments whenever they are asked to do so. The government of Salem basically was the Church.
From the church or the government there are many laws made pertaining to witchcraft. It is believed that if he or she is to dance, he is controlled by the devil. The subject of dancing is what gets the girls into trouble in the first place. The girls are seen by Parris dancing and conjuring evil spirits in the woods. “Witches” are what the girls are called by the people of the town. After they were caught, Parris goes upstairs to call Betty, his daughter, and Abagail, his niece, but Betty will not wake. This is when the
Christie 2
townspeople cry witch against her (Betty). Abagail says to her Uncle Parris, “The rumor of witchcraft is all about.” They think the devil has taken over the mind and soul of Betty and that is the reason she sleeps so soundly. The community that this play takes place in also believes that poppetsdollsare a sign of the devil. These are just ordinary dolls with regular human characteristics, but the people believed that the bodies and especially the faces of these dolls were rude mockeries of the human structure. Witchcraft and demonic ideas or beliefs are not to even be thought of during these times; severe punishment is the wrath of such things.

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Puritans must also attend the designated church services regularly. These are held on Sundays, from sun-up until sundown. If one fails to be in attendance, he will be punished accordingly. The Reverend Parris says, “There is obedience or the church will burn like hell is burning.” During the common folk’s spare time, they will not sit, read, or take part in any leisure activity unless they are studying or reading from their bibles. People believed that the common folks should not even have spare time. It is believed that laughing in church is also a sin. One might be hung for such an act. The Puritan religion is an incredibly strict religion.
In the play by Arthur Miller, The Crucible, all of the beliefs and community structures are unbelievably strict. The minister of the town and the church rules the town as the government. Witchcraft is an act that should not even be thought of in Salem. The religion of the town is so strict that one may not even laugh in church. During the Puritan times, if the rules and regulations are broken, the punishment is made so severe that the other people in the town will be intimidated so that they will not commit the same crime.

Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) was the seventh president of the United States (1829-1837). He made his way to wealth in a frontier society and leadership. All of the common people liked him and he established a bond with them. All of the common people looked to him for leadership when they were struggling. To them he was a good role model.

Andrew Jackson was born on March 5,1767 in south Carolina. When Jacksons father died they moved into the home of James Crawford. He went to frontier schools and got a reputation on being fiery tempered and willing to fight.(“Jackson, Andrew,” Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005
http://encarta.msn.com 1997-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.)
The American revolution didn’t reach Carolina until 1780 and Jackson, who was only 13 at the time, served as a militia orderly and messenger. Jackson and his brother Robert were captured when the British raided Waxhaw. His mother and Robert died because of smallpox when he was 14.(www.americanpresident.org/history/andrewjackson/biography) Since he didn’t have any other family he was a saddle maker and taught school. He inherited 300 dollars from his grandpa and went to Charleston, South Carolina and spent all his money there.

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In Salisbury, North Carolina Jackson studies law under Spruce Macay. He set up an office in Mcleanville when he entered practice in 1787.(“Jackson, Andrew,” Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005
http://encarta.msn.com 1997-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.)
In 1788 he and John Mcnairy crossed the Cumberland mountains where they settled in Nashville.(www.ipl.org/div/potus/ajackson.html)
Mcnairy was made a judge of the district’s Superior Court because he had connections. He made Jackson solicitor general which was to prepare court cases on behalf of the state. Because of his successful law practice he made a name for himself by prosecuting debators.

He married Mrs. Racheal Donelson Robards in 1791 but since she never completely divorced her old husband they were remarried two years later.(www.americanpresident.org/history/andrewjackson/biography )They did not have any children of their own but they did adopt Racheals infant nephew, who was Andrew Jackson Jr. they also adopted three other nephews of Racheals. They even raised a native American boy whose parents had been killed in Jackson’s Campaign against the Creek Nation in 1814.
In 1796 Jackson became the Tennessee delegate to the United States House of Representatives. One year in the house, Jackson was elected to fill out an unexpired term in the Senate. He served from September 1797 to April 1798 and then retired to prvate life. Jackson was appointed Judge of the Superior Court from 1798-1804. His decisions were said to be “short, unethical, unlearned, sometimes grammatical , and generally right”.(“Jackson, Andrew,” Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005
http://encarta.msn.com 1997-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.)
He was very active in politics but didn’t really care about national affairs. In the war of
1812 Jackson was Major General of the Tennessee Militia. At the battle of Horseshoe Bend in March 1814 on the Tallapoosa River Jackson wiped out millions of acres of Creek land to the United States and killed many Creek forces. In May 1814 Jackson Became Major General in the Federal army. On his way to New Orleans, to defend the city against British attack, he captured the British military base and arrived in New Orleans. On December 13,1814 the British were going to try a surprise attack on Jackson’s exposed flank.(www.americanpresident.org/history/andrewjackson/biography
) Jackson heard the plan and he launched his own surprise attack and set up a defense in a dry canal. On January 8,1815 the British were attacked in force but were thrown back.(“Jackson, Andrew,” Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005
http://encarta.msn.com 1997-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.)
For the election of 1824 Jackson’s opponents were John Quincy Adams, William H. Crawford and Henry Clay. Although Jackson had won the electoral and popular vote, he didn’t have enough of a majority vote to win.(“Jackson, Andrew,” Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005
http://encarta.msn.com 1997-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.)
On February 9,1825 the House of Representatives chose Adams for President.
In 1828 Jackson received 178 electoral votes and Adams got 83. He also won a majority of the popular vote. Jackson rewarded his political supporters with Cabinet positions. He relied less on his official cabinet in forming policy then he did on a group of close friends known as the Kitchen Cabinet. Jackson did not like the national bank and rejected it. In the election of 1832 it was Jackson vs. Clay. The election was centered on
the bank issue, so Jackson won the second term easily.

Before Jackson’s second term began, nullification became an issue again. In 1832 there was a tariff that congress passed which deemed oppressive to South Carolina. A convention declared this tariff null. Finally South Carolina excepted the tariff but they nullified the force bill.(www.americanpresident.org/history/andrewjackson/biography)
Jackson was the only president to ever pay off the National debt. The state banks were printing money that was more than the government actually had.
Jackson wanted to force all of the American Indians, remaining in the east of the Mississippi River, further west.(www.americanpresident.org/history/andrewjackson/biography)
He knew that Indian lands would make very good farms for white settlers. He turned a deaf ear to all arguments about Indian rights; so did his selfish supporters. Under United States treaties Indians were treated as an independent nation. Jackson encouraged people to ignore the courts ruling.

In Texas there were a lot of slaveholding southerners who settled there and Texas was part of Mexico which was sparsely colonized by the Mexicans and Spanish. Most of the new settlers wanted to annex Texas to the United States. Jackson thought the same way as them. Jackson refused to press for annexation because the Northern states didn’t want another slave state. On his last day in office he recognized the independent republic of Texas and appointing a diplomat to represent the United States there.
In 1836 Jackson was weak from tuberculosis and he didn’t want to do a third term, but he did continue with affairs of state and party, including that the party
nominated Van Buren as his successor. He grimly fulfilled the duties of his office until the inauguration that following March. The last day of Jackson’s presidency was as much a personal triumph as his first. Thousands came to bid good bye to their beloved hero.

Jackson spent the last eight years of his life at the Hermitage. He continued to entertain political supporters and kept a close watch on National affairs. On his deathbed he said. “My dear children ,and friends, and servants, I hope and trust to meet you all in heaven, both white and black-both white and black.”(“Jackson, Andrew,” Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005
http://encarta.msn.com 1997-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.)

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