Anabolic steroids (steroids for short) are used widely among bodybuilders toincrease their testosterone, thus to get stacked or larger. Steroids seemto be a wonderful thing for these bodybuilders, but very few of them know justhow they work and what the effects are.
History The word “anabolic” portraysany substance, which accumulates nitrogen in muscle protein and from therebuilds muscle tissue. The bodys natural anabolic steroid is calledtestosterone, which men (naturally) obtain more of, than women do. Testosteronebrings on the development of speed, mass, endurance, definition, and strength.Testosterone is naturally released into the blood stream, goes to differentlocations, accomplishes its goal, and is broken down by enzymes. This process isdone rather quickly. Eventually chemists discovered how to modify testosteronemolecules to make them last longer, and this is how anabolic steroids came intoplay. What Steroids do (biologically)? In a normal body, the procedures ofcatabolism (breaking down and removal of old cells) and anabolism (building upof new cells) are in an equilibrium.
When anabolic steroids are used, thisbalance is thrown off by the supremacy of the building up of new cells, and fromcells come muscle, so therefore muscle mass is increased. As previously stated,all anabolic steroids are chemical derivatives of testosterone. Becausetestosterone has a short biological half-life, pharmacological use requires thesteroid to be altered to slow metabolism by the liver. Commonly, oral steroidsare modified by alkylation (replacing H with a CH3 group), and injectablesteroids are modified by esterification of the hydroxyl group. Anabolic steroidswork by coupling with the cytoplasmic androgen receptor, where thesteroid-receptor complex moves into the nucleus and binds to DNA. The steroidand receptor may also dissociate in the nucleus and act on DNA separately, butit is uncertain if this actually happens. Testosterone may also inhibit thecatabolic pathway associated with glucocorticoids, but this is also uncertain asto whether this is affiliated with an interaction between testosterone andglucocorticoid or the nuclear manner of the steroid-receptor complex. In thenucleus steroids seem to intensify specific gene material.
Then mRNA is preparedto be sent out of the nucleus, leaving increased protein synthesis. If thecomplex inhibits the catabolic enzymes then it is possible that catabolicinhibition may also occur in the nucleus. By looking at the concentration of theandrogen receptor, it is an example of how sensitive it is. Skeletal muscletypically contains 0.5-3 femto (1E-12) moles per milligram of protein, at thesame time other androgen sensitive organs, may have up to 25 times morereceptors. Oral Steroids and their effect on The Liver Oral steroids have anegative effect on the liver due to the fact that they have an alkyl group(methyl or ethyl) assembled at the 17-alpha position. The 17-beta hydroxyl (OH)is now changed from a secondary to an unoxidizable teritary one (an irregulardisfigure), which obstructs the natural hepatic oxidation of the 17 hydroxylgroup.
When this metabolic inactivation is blocked, the liver turns to lessproficient and more complex mechanisms of inactivation. Injectable steroids areconceived to go in the system and get hydrolyzed and become a naturalmetabolizable secondary 17-beta hydroxyl steroid, and are not considered to bedangerous to the liver. Common/Known Effects of Steroid Use Water retention is aknown sign of a steroid user. Usually the neck and facial are become puffy, orpuffier than normal. It may be hard to recognize in someone you first met, butonce his or her steroid use is complete, you can see the difference. Acne isanother effect through steroid use.
A person who has never had a problem candevelop one from steroids. Also acne can appear in places that were never aproblem. The formation of breast-like glands can arise, this is calledgynecomastia. Roid rages or overly aggressive behavior can take place throughsteroid use.
People often joke about the term roid rage, but it is not ajoke. People who use steroids often find that their performance during theirworkouts are enhanced because they can take out their aggression through liftingmore, but they also take aggression out on other parts of their surroundings(people around them, walls, slamming doors, etc). High blood pressure can becomea problem after or during steroid use. Because steroids affect cholesterollevels (by clogging the arteries), heart problems may arise in steroid users.The elevated level on the nervous system can trigger heart Palpitations.
When asteroid user begins using, sexual arousal increases, but eventually impotencecan occur when the user goes on and off of steroids. When high dosages ofsteroids are used, a painful liver disease called Jaundice can develop. Jaundiceinvolves an enlarged liver, flu-like symptoms, and yellowing of the skin andeyes.
Cataracts or glaucoma may develop in the eyes. Cushings syndrome maydevelop with long-term use, this involves dark marks on the skin, puffiness ofthe face, and possible facial hair in women. Women can also experienceOsteoporosis due to the calcium loss. Because steroids can increase the outputof stomach acid and lower the production of protective stomach mucus, irritationof the stomach can occur. Blood sugar levels may change, an increase ofappetite, an increase of delayed healing of injuries, menstrual changes inwomen. How Are They Used/Purchased by the General Public? Anabolic steroids areacquired through the black market, and sometimes even veterinary anabolicsteroids are consumed. On the average, people taking anabolic steroids usemethods heard by word of mouth rather than using scientific experiments. Thereis a term used to describe the way steroids are used, its called stacking.
This term denotes the immense amounts of anabolic steroids taken and the use ofmore than one type of steroid at the same time. Instead of constantly takinglarge doses of steroids, people take vast amounts for about a month to 1 1/2yr,then stop for a period of time before they take them again. This system is knownas cycling. In conclusion, the use of anabolic steroids is not a healthyalternative to increasing your muscles. Steroids alter a trait that you alreadyhave. The question steroid users should ask themselves is “Do I want to lookgood now and damage myself internally, risking my future health”? Most steroidusers do not have a remote idea about what these drugs do to them.
In turn theyunknowingly damage their DNA and cause future problems for themselves.Bibliography.BibliographyArnold, Patrick.
The chemistry: Steroids and the Liver. Issue No.1. .
GrowthHormone Information. Growth Hormone Revolution. PHD Pharmaceuticals.