Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein
March 14 1879 – April 18 1955 Born Ulm, Germany. Died Princeton, USA.


Albert Einstein was a very famous Scientist, he was mostly famous for his
theory of Relativity. In 1894 Einstein’s family moved to Milan and Einstein
decided officially to relinquish his German citizenship in favor of Swiss. In
1895 Einstein failed an examination that would have allowed him to study for
a diploma as an electrical engineer at Zurich. After attending secondary
school at Aarau, Einstein returned (1896) to the Zurich Polytechnic,
graduating (1900) as a secondary school teacher of mathematics and physics.

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He worked at the patent office in Bern from 1902 to 1909 and while there
he completed an astonishing range of theoretical physics publications, written
in his spare time without the benefit of close contact with scientific
literature or colleagues. Einstein earned a doctorate from the University of
Zurich in 1905. In 1908 he became a lecturer at the University of Bern, the
following year becoming professor of physics at the University of Zurich.


By 1909 Einstein was recognized as a leading scientific thinker. After
holding chairs in Prague and Zurich he advanced (1914) to a prestigious post at
the Kaiser-Wilhelm Gesellschaft in Berlin. From this time he never taught a
university courses. Einstein remained on the staff at Berlin until 1933, from
which time until his death he held a research position at the Institute for
Advanced Study in Princeton.


In the first of three papers (1905) Einstein examined the phenomenon
discovered by Max Planck, according to which electromagnetic energy seemed to be
emitted from radiating objects in discrete quantities. The energy of these
quanta was directly proportional to the frequency of the radiation. This seemed
at odds with the classical electromagnetic theory, based on Maxwell’s equations
and the laws of thermodynamics which assumed that electromagnetic energy
consisted of waves which could contain any small amount of energy. Einstein used
Planck’s quantum hypothesis to describe the electromagnetic radiation of light.


Einstein’s second 1905 paper proposed what is today called the special
theory of relativity. He based his new theory on a reinterpretation of the
classical principle of relativity, namely that the laws of physics had to have
the same form in any frame of reference. As a second fundamental hypothesis,
Einstein assumed that the speed of light remained constant in all frames of
reference, as required by Maxwell’s theory.


Later in 1905 Einstein showed how mass and energy were equivalent.

Einstein was not the first to propose all the components of special theory of
relativity. His contribution is unifying important parts of classical mechanics
and Maxwell’s electrodynamics.


The third of Einstein’s papers of 1905 concerned statistical mechanics,
a field of that had been studied by Ludwig Boltzmann and Josiah Gibbs.


After 1905 Einstein continued working in the areas described above. He
made important contributions to quantum theory, but he sought to extend the
special theory of relativity to phenomena involving acceleration. The key
appeared in 1907 with the principle of equivalence, in which gravitational
acceleration was held to be indistinguishable from acceleration caused by
mechanical forces. Gravitational mass was therefore identical with inertial mass.


By 1911 Einstein was able to make preliminary predictions about how a
ray of light from a distant star, passing near the Sun, would appear to be bent
slightly, in the direction of the Sun.


About 1912, Einstein began a new phase of his gravitational research, with
the help of his mathematician friend Marcel Grossmann, by expressing his work
in terms of the tensor calculus of Tullio Levi-Civita and Gregorio Ricci-
Curbastro. Einstein called his new work the general theory of relativity.

After a number of false starts he published, late in 1915, the definitive
version of general theory.


When British eclipse expeditions in 1919 confirmed his predictions,
Einstein was idolised by the popular press. Einstein returned to Germany in
1914 but did not reapply for German citizenship. Einstein received the Nobel
Prize in 1921 but not for relativity rather for his 1905 work on the
photoelectric effect .


He worked at Princeton on work which attempted to unify the laws of physics.


Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein
Einstein was born on March 14, 1879, in Ulm Germany. He lived there with
his parents, Herman and Pauline. Einstein attended a Catholic School near his
home. But, at age 10, Einstein was transferred to the “Luitpold Gymnasium”,
where he learned Latin, Greek, History, and Geography. Einstein’s father wanted
him to attend a university but he could not because he did not have a diploma
from the Gymnasium. But there was a solution to this problem over the Alps, in
Zurich. There was The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology which did not
require a diploma to attend. The one thing it did require was applicant to pass
an entrance exam. But then yet another problem arose most scholars were 18 when
they entered the institute, and Einstein was only 16.


In Berne, on January 6, 1903; Einstein married Mileva Maric. The
twowitnesses at the small, quiet wedding, were Maurice Solovine and Conard
Habicht. After the wedding, there was a meal to celebrate at a local restaurant.

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But no honeymoon. After the meal, the newlyweds returned to their new home. It
was a small flat, about 100 yards away from Bere’s famous clock tower. Upon
returning home, a small incident occured, that was to occur many times
throughout Einstern’s life; he had forgotten his key. A year later, in 1904 they
had a child, Hans Albert. In that same year, he recieved a job at the swiss
patent office.


In 1905, three of Einstein’s 4 famous papers; “about a ‘heuristical’
perspective about the creation and modulation of light, about the movement of in
still liquids mixed objects supported by the molecularkinetical theory of heat
and about the electrodynamics of moving objects”. In autumn of 1922 Einstein
received the Nobel Prize for Physics, for his work on the photoelectric effect.

He did not receive the prize for his “theory of relativity” because it was
thought that at the time it did not meet the criteria of something that a Nobel
Prize is awarded for. So when the prize was awarded to him, they said it was
awared to him for his work on the photoelectric effect, if his theory of
relativity is proven false, and if his theory of relativitywas proven correct,
the prize was for that.


Einstein died on April 18, 1955. He died of “leakage of blood from a
hardened aorta”. And he refused the surgery that could have saved his life. The
doctors told him that he could go anytime from a minute to a few days. And
Einstein still refused the surgery. The day passed quietly, and on Starurday
morning, Einstein seemed to be better, but then Einstein began to have intense
pain His nurse called the doctor who arrived quickly, and persuaded Einstein
that he would be better in a hospital, an ambulance was called, and Einstein
went the the hospital. On Sunday he told his daugther “Don’t let the house
become a museum.” He died the next day.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein was one of a few scientists that change the way we look at the world Today. He was born in 1879 and die on 1955. In that time he made many theories on how the world works. Einstein got married twice once to a class mate and once his cousin. Einstein also like music and he played the violin.


Albert Einstein is on of few scientist who had changed the way the world works today. Albert Einstein was born in Ulm Germany on March 14 1879. He died in Princeton on April 18 1955 at the age of 76.
Albert Einstein did not like his school in Germany. His best subject in school were mathematics and science. At The age of 12 he taught himself Euclidean geometry. Later when he was 17 he entered the Polytechnic in Zurich Switzerland. He did not like the Polytechnic very much. He often cut classes to study physics and play his beloved violin. In Polytechnic he met a classmate named Mileva Maric. They got along very will so they soon got married. They had two sons and settled down in a small apartment in Bern. In Bern he had a job to check technical description in the application for patents.
In 1913 Einstein was invited to Berlin to lead a scientific research. He then separated from his wife and two son to go to Berlin. In Berlin explained his theories to other scientists. In Berlin he happened to live very close to his cousin Elsa. Elsa was a widow with two daughter. Albert Einstein and Elsa got along very well so they go married. They lived in lager apartment.

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Albert Einstein had many theories his General theory of Relativity, His special Theory of relativity, Theory about light rays and many more. His Theory of relativity was probably his most famous one of all. It was about the laws of relativity and the law of gravity. One of Albert Einstein theories that he could prove was his theory about light rays. It was about how gravity could bend light rays. On march 1919 there was a total eclipse of the sun. This was Albert Einstein chance to prove his theory about light rays. On that day the moon move in the way of the sun blocking the light. On both side of the sun there was two stars. When the moon block the sun you could only see the to stars. The two stars seem farther away because the gravitational pull of the sun bend the light rays of the two stars making it look farther to the people on Earth. Albert Einstein predicted exactly what look place. This made Albert Einstein very famous. When Albert Einstein was famous his theories were know to every one in the world by 1922. Most people did not understand his theories but they relaxed that he was a genius.


Albert Einstein traveled all over the world give lectures and explaining his theories to other scientist. This sometime was very stressful for Albert Einstein. He had many ways of relaxing his favorite way of relaxing was to play his beloved violin. In 1921 he was invited to the United States Of America to give lectures and explain his theories to other scientist. There Albert Einstein was greeted by cheering crowds at the airport. In 1922 he won a Nobel Prizes for physics. Albert Einstein won a the Nobel Prizes for physics for proving he theory on light rays and other things. After Albert Einstein won the Nobel Prizes for Physics he was followed by photographer and reporters everywhere he went. He was the best known scientist in the 20th century.
In 1939the scientist of the United States of America turn to Albert Einstein for help. They feared that Germany was making a atomic bomb. Albert Einstein got to work right away. Albert Einstein and a group of scientist studied the inside of an atom. Later on Albert Einstein and a group of scientist were able to develop an atomic bomb. Whit this they were able to threaten the Germans.
Albert Einstein made a difference in how in how we look at thing today. He was born in Ulm Germany on March 14, 1879 and die in Princeton on April 15, 1955. Albert Einstein got married twice. With his first wife he had two sons. Whit his second wife he had to daughter. Albert Einstein made many Theories on how the world works. Albert Einstein traveled all over the world giving lectures to other scientist. In 1922 he won the Nobel Prizes for physics.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein Albert Einstein In the next few pages I will talk about a famous mathematician I decided to choose and write an essay about. I chose probably the most well known mathematician/inventor in the world, his name is Albert Einstein. I chose him because he is the one I know the most about and finding information would not have been as hard. In the next few pages I will tell you about his life as a kid, his life as a mathematician, and his life as an inventor. His name was Albert Einstein. He was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Germany.

Before his first birthday, his family had moved to Munich were Albert’s father, Hermann Einstein, and uncle set up a small Electro-chemical business. Albert was a very lucky kid because he was one of the few kids that were very close with their family. Albert’s mother, Pauline Einstein, had an intense passion for music and literature, and it was she that first introduced her son to the violin in which he found much joy and relaxation. Also, he was very close with his younger sister, Maja, and they could often be found in the lakes that were scattered about the countryside near Munich. As a child, Einstein’s sense of curiosity had already begun to stir.

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A favorite toy of his was his fathers compass, and he often marveled at his uncle’s explanations of algebra. Although Albert was intrigued by certain mysteries of science, he was considered a slow learner. His failure to become fluent in German until the age of nine even led some teachers to believe he was disabled. Einstein’s post-basic education began at the Luitpold Gymnasium when he was ten. It was here that he first encountered the German spirit through the school’s strict disciplinary policy. His disapproval of this method of teaching led to his reputation as a rebel. It was probably these differences that caused Einstein to search for knowledge at home.

He began not with science, but with religion. He would read the bible most of the day seeking truth, but his religious fervor soon died down when he discovered the intrigue of science and math. To him, these seemed much more realistic than ancient stories. With this new knowledge he disliked class even more. So from already skipping about two times a week it turned to four or five which soon led to his getting expelled from Luitpold Gymnasium, because they considered him a disruptive influence.

Feeling that he could no longer take the attitude of Germany he decided to move to Switzerland where he could continue his education. At sixteen he attempted to enroll at the Federal Institute of Technology but failed the entrance exam. This forced him to study locally for one year until he finally passed the schools evaluation. The Institute allowed Einstein to meet many other students that shared his curiosity, and it was here that his studies turned mainly to Physics. He quickly learned that while physicists had generally agreed on major principals in the past, there were modern scientists who were attempting to disapprove outdated theories.

Since most of Einstein’s teachers ignored these new ideas, he was again forced to explore on his own. In 1900 he graduated from the Institute and then achieved citizenship to Switzerland. A group of students that he tutored quickly transformed onto a social club that shared a love of nature, music, and of course science. In 1903 he married Mileva Meric, A mathematician friend. In 1905, Einstein published five separate papers in a journal, the Annals of Physics.

The first was immediately acknowledged, and the University of Zurich awarded Einstein an additional degree. The other papers helped to develop modern physics and earned him the reputation of an artist. Many scientists have said that Einstein’s work contained an imaginative spirit that was seen in most poetry. His work at this time dealt with molecules, and how their motion affected temperature, but he is most well known for his Special Theory of Relativity, which tackled motion and the speed of light. Perhaps the most important part of his discoveries was the equation: E= mc2.

After publishing these theories Einstein was promoted at his office. He remained at the Patents office for another two years, but his name was becoming too big among the scientific community. In 1908, Einstein began teaching part time at the University of Berne, and the following year, at the age of thirty, he became employed full time by Zurich University. Einstein was now able to move to Prague with his wife and two sons, Hans Albert and Eduard. Finally, after being promoted to a professor, Einstein and his family were able to enjoy a good living, but the jobs main advantage was he was able to enter enormous libraries.

That is where he would go to further his theories. In 1912 he chose to accept a job placing him in high authority at the Federal Institute of Technology, were he had originally studied. It was not until 1914 that Einstein was tempted to return to Germany to become research director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics. World War 1 had a strong effect on Einstein. While the rest of Germany supported the army, he felt the war was unnecessary, and disgusting.

The new weapons of war, which attempted to mass slaughter people, caused him to devote much of his life toward creating peace. Toward the end of the war Einstein joined a political party that worked to end the war, the government, and Einstein was seen as a traitor. In the same year, Einstein published his General Theory of relativity, this is the result of ten years work. Some say it revolutionized physics. It basically stated that the universe had to be thought of as a curve, and told how light was affected by this. After the war, many aspects of Einstein’s life changed.

He divorced his wife, who had been living in Zurich with the children throughout the war, and married his cousin Elsa Lowenthal. This led to a renewed interest in his Jewish roots, and he became an active supporter of Zionism. Since anti-Semitism was growing in Germany, he quickly became the target of prejudice. There were many rumors about groups who were trying to kill Einstein and began to travel extensively. The biggest change, though, was in 1919 when scientists who studied an eclipse and confirmed that his theories were correct.

Years after Einstein traveled Britain and United States of America raising money for Zionism and lecturing of his findings, he received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922. He gave all of his money to his ex-wife and their kids to help their lives and education. He built a Hebrew University in Jerusalem. He also gave some speeches in Jerusalem, and than went to his home to study more on his original curiosity, religion. While Einstein was visiting in America in 1933 the Nazi party came to power in Germany.

Again he was subject to anti-Semitic attacks, but this time his house was broken into, and he was publicly considered an enemy of the nation. It was obvious that he could not return to Germany, and for the second time he renounced his German citizenship. In 1939 the Second World War began to take form. There was heated argument during this time over whether the United States should explore the idea of an atomic bomb. Einstein wrote to President Roosevelt warning him of the disaster that could occur if the Nazi’s developed it first. Einstein did not participate in the development of the bomb, but the idea did stem from his equation E= mc2. Just as he knew the bomb was under development, he also knew when it was going to be used.

Just before the bomb was dropped on Japan Einstein wrote a letter to the President begging him not to use this terrible weapon. The rest of Einstein’s life was dedicated to promoting peace. After the war ended, he declared, “The war is won, but the peace is not.” In April 18 of the year 1955 an end came to the life of Albert Einstein. He was thought to be a hero to some and a traitor to others but what he did for our world can’t even be compared to anything anyone has ever done. I hope you found my paper to be informative, educational, and not to boring. I hope that you learned something new reading this, like when he married his cousin, not to many people this little fact. Presented to: By: Bibliography § Microsoft Encarta 95.

Microsoft. IBM PC CD-ROM. 1995 § Grolier Encyclopedia 94. IBM PC CD-ROM. 1994 § “Einstein, Albert.” Random House Encyclopedia, Random House Press, 1990 edition. § Clark, Ronald W., Einstein – The Life and Time, New York: World Publishing, 1971.

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