Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein was a famous scientist, writer and professor. He was born in Ulm,
Germany, on March 24,1879. As a child, Einstein wasn’t like the other boys: he
hated school but loved math. He was shy, and talked very slowly. He didn’t
participate in sports but instead played with mechanical toys, put together
jigsaw puzzles, built towers and studied nature. At school and home he would ask
many questions and because of that everybody thought he was dumb. Once when he
was sick in bed, his father Herman, bought him a compass; and Albert asked
“Why does the needle point to the north?” His father didn’t know the
answer. Herman was calm, friendly and had a black mustache. Einstein also had a
brother, Jakob. Studied electrical machinery firm financed by the Kocks.


Pauline, Einstein’s mother was a cultured women and an excellent pianist.

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Pauline encouraged Einstein to study the violin along with his scientific
ambitions. There was a strong physical resemblance between Einstein and his
younger sister Maja, and the two had a close relationship throughout their
lives. Maja, also a pianist, married Paul Winteler Einstein childhood friend,
Paul Winteler, in 1910 and later moved to the United States. When Einstein was
older, he invented electric eye. He also was asked to be the president of
Israel, but he refused. When Einstein was a teen-ager he was very interested in
science. When he wanted to relax he would play the violin which he started
playing at the age of six. The kocks, his mother’s family, and the Einstein had
lived in Southern Germany for more than a century, selling cloth, farming, and
clerking in banks. During their free hours they enjoyed boating on the Danube
and walking in the woods. Both families were Jewish . In 1880, when Albert was
one year old, his father’s business failed and the family moved to Munich, the
capital of Bavaria A heavily catholic city, it featured art galleries, breweries
and a university. Einstein’s father Herman. managed an electrical machinery firm
which was financed partly by the Kock family. Einstein’s mother Pauline, was a
cultured woman and excellent pianist. She was 11 years younger than her husband.


Pauline not only motivated her son to encouraged his scientific ambitions. When
Einstein was fifteen, his father’s business failed again, and the family
relocated in Italy, Milan. Einstein stayed behind to complete his education, but
soon was asked to live school. He eventually joined his family in Italy. His
parents continued to support his scientific interests, however enabling him to
study at the ” Swiss Federal Polytechnic School,” or “Swiss
Federal Institute of Technology,” in Zurich. At the institute, Einstein met
a petite, dark-haired Mileva Maric, who excelled in mathematics. Albert and
Mileva were married on January 6, 1903. Although the couple had two sons, Mileva
was dissatisfied with her life. She wanted either a career in her husband’s
work. After many years of disagreement, the couple divorced in 1919, and Mileva
became a university teacher of mathematics. Einstein kept in touch with her and
his sons, and in the early 20s, he gave Mileva his entire forty-five thousand
dollars Nobel Prize. Han’s Albert, Einsteins older son, developed a good
relationship with his father. He became a good engineer, and when Einstein moved
to United States in 1933, Hans Albert visited him often, ultimately setting here
with his own family. Einstein younger son Eduard, began reading Shakespeare at
the age of five. He got his father permission to concentrated on music and
literature but did not achieve success. Eduard later accused his father of
ruining his life a nervous breakdown. Although Einstein rushed to Switzerland
when Eduard became ill, neither he nor the psychiatrists were able to help.


Eduard lived with his mother until her death, when he was placed in a mental
institution. Einstein also proved that matter and energy are really different
forms of the same thing, which is the Special Theory of Relativity. Einstein’s
General Theory of Relativity showed that gravity, too, is relative. Gravity is
the force that attracts two bodies of matter toward one another. This theory
explained that a person gaining speed would feel *a force exactly like the pull
of gravity. In a spaceship without windows, that person would not be able to
tell if the ship had started too move faster, or if it were being pulled by
gravity from planet of star. In 1929. Einstein had doubts about whether an
atomic bomb could really be made. ON August 6, 1945, the United states dropped
an atomic bomb on Japan. Since this Einstein had believed the conflict could be
settled without restorting to such a terrible weapon. “Oh weh!” he
gasped. It was cry of sorrow that went beyond words. On August 9, the United
states drop a second bomb on Japan, ending war. A new historical atomic age, had
been born, and no one knew better than Einstein the threat it posed to human
survival. For the rest of his life, he worked to make sure the bomb would never
be used again. He served in committees to inform the public about atomic energy
and the growing danger of weapons development. In 1905 Einstein proposed his
Special Theory of Relativity. According to this theory, people view time and
space differently, depending on their positions relative, or in relation, to one
another. For example, To a person standing at the exact midpoint between two
lamps, those lamps might appear to flash at the same time. But a person passing
by very quickly in a train would see one lamp flash before the other. This
happens because the light from one lamp would reach that person before the light
from other lamp. Time, then would be different for the two people. Einstein had
many opportunities to speak out about causes in which he believed. One of those
causes was Zionism, the movement to create the Jewish nation of Israel. Another
was world peace. Many times he urged the nations of the world to get rid of
their weapons. Einstein is remembered as a great scientist who worked hard to
make the world a better place for all people.

Albert Einstein 2

‘The search for truth is more precious than its possession’;
Albert Einstein, also known as ‘The Father of The Nuclear Age,’; perhaps one of the most brilliant minds ever to exist was a very quiet man.

‘Einstein’s Theory of Relativity revolutionized scientific brought with new conceptions of time, space, mass, motion, and gravitation’; (Unknown, World Book Inc.)
Albert Einstein contributed more than any other scientist to the modern vision of physical reality. His theory of relativity is held as human thought of the highest quality. (http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Mathematicians/Einstein.html)
Interested in human affairs and was one of the first supporters of a World Government, and had great compassion for people who were politically oppressed or economically oppressed. He was also fond of classical music, and was a great player of the violin. He was born to Hermann and Paulina Koch Einstein on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Wrttemberg Germany. As a young boy at the age of five his father Hermann, showed him a little pocket compass. Einstein was deeply impressed by the mysterious behavior of the compass, because it always pointed at the same direction no matter what direction he was holding the compass itself. He later said ‘something deeply hidden had to be behind things.’; He attended public school in Munich, Germany and also in Aarau, Switzerland. Later Einstein Studied mathematics and physics at the Swiss Polytechnic institute in Zurich. From 1902 until 1909, Einstein worked as an examiner at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. This job gave him much time for scientific research. Einstein became a Swiss Citizen in 1905. In 1933 while visiting the U.S. and England, Nazi Germany took seize of Einstein’s property and deprived his of his citizenship. Einstein on the other hand had been invited to study at Princeton, NJ at the Institute for Advanced Study. Einstein gladly accepted the invitation and lived there until his death in 1955. His influential letter to President Roosevelt on August 2, 1939 started the Manhattan Project and through this project, without his influence many more Allied Power lives would have been lost in WWII
Albert Einstein’s study of Physics and Mathematics was ingenious. Although I do not know much about the great mathematicians of the 20th century, I feel as if Albert Einstein contributed most to modern math than any other modern mathematician that I know of. His study of Physics and the progress he made in the understanding of physics gave him world-renowned attention. In 1922 he won the Nobel Peace Prize in Physics giving furthermore recognition. Einstein also won medals such as the Gold Medal, Copley Medal of the Royal Society, and the Barnard Medal. Albert Einstein’s explanation of physics also gained him a lot of influence in the world of physics and of military personal because of the potentials of nuclear energy that were being explored. Einstein’s work in the field of physics helped explain atomic physics such as his most famous theory, ‘The Theory of Relativity.’; His findings on the theory of relativity (E=mc^2) helped show the potential of nuclear energy. With all of his findings and his own personal feelings on WWII Einstein felt he needed tell President Roosevelt about the potentials of a Nuclear Bomb and how the Germans were working on a bomb using Nuclear Energy.

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In the year 1939, Einstein and several other physicist worked together to write a letter to President Roosevelt about the need to start a nuclear program. Only Einstein’s signature was on the letter showing that to me that he was the only person bold enough to stand up for what he believed in firmly, just like John Hancock and his famous signature in the Declaration of Independence. Einstein’s Letters to Roosevelt whom he sent stated,
(Partial Letter One)
Sir:
Some recent work by E.Fermi and L. Szilard, which has been communicated to me in manuscript, leads me to expect that the element uranium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in the immediate future. Certain aspects of the situation which has arisen seem to call for watchfulness and, if necessary, quick action on the part of the Administration. I believe therefore that it is my duty to bring
to your attention the following facts and recommendations: In the course of the last four months it has been made probable -through the work of Joliot in France as well as Fermi and Szilard in
America – that it may become possible to set up a nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium, by which vast amounts of power and large quantities of new radium-like elements would be generated. Now it appears almost certain that this could be achieved in the immediate future. This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs, and it is conceivable – though much less certain – that extremely powerful bombs of a new type may thus be constructed. A single bomb of this type, carried by boat and exploded in a port, might very well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory. However, such bombs might very well prove to be too heavy for transportation by air.


(Partial Letter Two)
Since the outbreak of the war, interest in uranium has intensified in Germany. I have now learned that research there is carried out in great secrecy and that it has been extended to another of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes, the Institute of Physics.(Albert Einstein, Ronald W. Clark. Einstein)
What these letters did was, it sparked the start of the Manhattan project. The Manhattan Project was a covert operation to build an atomic bomb to use as soon as possible. The Manhattan project was not know to the public and the details of it were not shared with Einstein himself. J. Robert Oppenheimer created the first atomic bomb, he was a scientist, philosopher, bohemian and radical, he was the man chosen to direct the construction of the first nuclear weapon by the U.S.
(Pentis Building, The Place Where the First Atomic Bomb was built)
The Manhattan Project was the code name for the US effort during the War. It was named after the Manhattan Engineer District of the US Army Corps. Started by the letter from Albert Einstein and other refugee physicists in the US, the program was slowly organized after nuclear fission was discovered by German scientists, in 1938, and many US scientists feared the chance that Hitler would attempt to build a fission bomb.
‘ The object of the project is to produce a practical military weapon in the form of a bomb in which the energy is released by a fast neutron chain reaction in one of more of the materials known to show nuclear fission.’; (Robert Serber April, 1943)
The Outcome of this project and Einstein’s idea was the first atomic bomb, a.k.a. Little Boy and the second atomic bomb, a.k.a. Fat Man. The first bomb Little boy was dropped on the city of Hiroshima at 8:45 a.m. August 6, 1945. Lt. Col. Paul Tibbets wrote ( Newsweek)
‘ A bright light filled the plane.’; ‘We turned back to look at Hiroshima. The city was hidden by that awful cloud;#8230; boiling up, mushrooming.’; ‘For a moment, no one spoke. Then everyone was talking.’; ‘Look at that!, Look at that!’; Exclaimed the co.-pilot, Robert Lewis, pounding to Tibbets’s shoulder. Lewis said he could taste atomic fission: it tasted like lead. Then he turned away to written in his journal. ‘My God,’; he asked himself, ‘what have we done?’; (Special Report, ‘Hiroshima: August 6, 1945)
the point where the atomic bomb exploded was approximately 2,000 ft above the building that is now called the A- bomb dome.
This act of power from the US showed the world that the US was not a country to be messed with. It led to a quick end with Japan. Now the Axis Powers had lost a greatly needed ally in the war. Also now the Russians who agreed with the Allied Powers to help fight off the Japanese in the Pacific could put all of their resources and man power into the fight against the Axis Powers in Europe. This act by the US was not a humane thing to do, but is war humane anyhow? This act helped end the war with Japan and it saved many US lives because now the US did not have to send in ground troops into Japanese territory before their surrender. Not only for the years during the war but for years to come it showed how far superior American technology and the might of our country.
Without Einstein’s influence many more Allied Power lives would have been lost in WWII. I feel most importantly that the fact he was of Jewish decent is what most importantly helped the US in a very odd way. Einstein was asked by the Germans to lead in their research for the atomic bomb, but he refused obviously because of their intentions against the Jewish people. Also if Einstein had decided to join the German program they would probably have been ready to build the atomic bomb. President Roosevelt also would probably have never been called to the attention of the probability of the Germans building an atomic bomb and have never received the key letter from Einstein or anyone else to start the Manhattan Project. Even though Einstein did not participate in the building of the atomic bomb I feel he was the foremost major contributor in the completion of the atomic bomb. For reasons such as; He was a pioneer in the science of physics, he could have joined the enemy in the atomic race, the US might have even never know about the possibility of an atomic bomb, and Albert Einstein held enough stature and prestige to persuade a president on such a costly weapon that has had no prior use and which was being built primarily on theories.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein When many people hear the name Albert Einstein, they say, Ooh what did he do, write a bunch of stuff on a chalkboard, prove to some scientists that he was right, and then star in a Pepsi commercial? Well, Im here to tell you that he did much more than that, (even though I really like that Pepsi commercial.) Albert Einstein was born March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Wrttemberg, Germany. Albert began his extensive studies at a school in Munich. At Munich he pursued a career in Electrical Engineering, but failed an exam and was rejected from Eidgenssische Technische Hochschule in Zurich. After failing at his original choice of schools, he went on to a secondary school in Aarau to train himself enough to be admitted into ETH (his original choice). While at Aarau he planned on becoming a teacher in mathematics and physics. As expected he did graduate from ETH in the year 1900 with a degree in teaching for the subjects of Math and Physics. He didnt however get a job right away, he, in fact, went around writing to different universities applying for one.

After searching for about a year, he finally landed a job at a high school teaching mathematics. While at this school he wrote in one of his journals, I have given up the ambition to get to a University After he went through this job, and indeed a couple more, his friend from school, Marcel Grossmann sought him out so his father could help him get a job. After a recommendation to the director of patents, Einstein held a temporary patent post, holding the title, Technical Expert Third Class. He was promoted several times over a span of about 5 years. While working at the patent office, he finished a boatload of theoretical physics publications.

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He even earned a doctorate on one from the University of Zurich. This paper was entitled, On a new determination of molecular dimensions. After publishing a few more papers, he began to be recognized. He became a university lecturer. After a few years of lecturing for Universities, he began to travel.

Many people believe that the reason he moved away from Germany was because of the anti-Jewish movements. He visited the U.S. a few times as well as many other countries. But in 1935, Einstein was granted permanent residency in the USA. As a US citizen, Einstein was credited for many new contributions to science.

But his biggest known project in the US is the assistance he provided in the Atomic Bomb. On August 2nd 1939, Einstein wrote to Franklin D. Roosevelt, (then the president of the US.) Him and a few other scientists warned him about Germanys studies of Uranium, the key to an atomic bomb. Roosevelt was then inclined to start his own project, the Manhattan Project. A project solely developed to discover a method to make an atomic bomb.

After about 6 years of Einstein working alongside other great minds of history, a final product was introduced. Code named Gadget, the atomic bomb was escorted to the test site in Los Alamos. Here they would all watch to see the magnitude of their invention. On July 16th, 1945, at the time of 5:29:45 (mountain war time) the A-bomb, as it was called, was detonated. It then produced a mushroom cloud 30,000 feet high.

All that was left at the blast site were fragments of jade green glass, produced from the heat and the sand. Many of the bombs creators had different views on the success of the project. J. Robert Oppenheimer thought the project was a total success. One of the other creators was quoted as saying, Now were all sons of bitches.

Einstein agreed, he also didnt like what he saw. His view of it was that they had created a monster. He spent much of the rest of his life fighting to get rid of the bomb. But his pleas were ignored. His final letter was to a man named Bertrand Russell, in it he asked to be put on a manifesto urging the world to hang up their nuclear weapons.

He died on the 18th of April in 1955 at the town of Princeton, New Jersey, right here in the US. So its easy to see how Albert Einstein changed history. For one he added a ton of knowledge to todays science and physics, and for two, he helped invent the Atomic bomb that won America the military respect it needed. And then he fought against it to try to bring about world peace. The only way to sum it all up is, What a guy.

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