. reproduce it with your own behavior. 3.
Reproduction. You have to translate the images or descriptions into actual behavior. Our ability to imitate improves with practice at the behaviors involved.
In addition, our abilities improve even when we just imagine ourselves performing the behavior. 4. Motivation. Yet with all this, youre still not going to do anything unless you are motivated to imitate or until you have some reason for doing it. Bandura mentions a number of motives: past reinforcement (traditional behaviorism), promised reiforcement (incentives we can imagine), and vicarious reinforcement (seeing and recalling the model being reinforced).In addition there are negative motives such as past punishment, promised punishment, and vicarious punishment, that give reasons to not imitate someone. (Boeree, 1998, p.2-3) In addition, Bandura created modeling therapy.
The theory is that, if you can get someone with a psychological disorder to observe someone dealing with the same issues in a more productive fashion, the first person will learn by modeling the second. His original research on this involved herpephobics-people with a neurotic fear of snakes. The client would be lead to a window looking in on a lab room.
In that room is nothing but a chair, a table, a cage on the table with a locked latch, and a snake clearly visible in the cage. The client then watches another person, (an actor) go through a slow and painful approach to the snake. He acts terrified at first, but shakes himself out of it, tells himself to relax and breathe normally and takes one step at a time towards the snake. He may stop in the middle, retreat in panic, and start all over. Ultimately, he gets to the point where he opens the cage, removes the snake, sits down in the chair, and drapes it over his neck, all the while giving himself calming instructions.After the client has seen all this, he is invited to try it himself.
He is told before hand that the person was only an actor, so there is no deception involved, only modeling. And yet, many clients are able to do the entire routine the first time around, even after one viewing of the actor. Bandura also introduced a self system that allows individuals to have a large amount of control over their own thoughts, feelings, and actions. It also allows them to symbolize, learn from others, plan alternate strategies, regulate ones own behavior and engage in self-reflection.
Individuals can then alter their environments and themselves as they see fit. He suggests that knowledge, skill, and prior attainments are often poor indicators of current attainments because peoples beliefs in their abilities and about how they will perform strongly influence the way they will behave. How people interpret the results of their performance accomplishments informs and alters their environment and self-beliefs and in turn, will change the performances that follow. Bandura sees self-reflection as the most unique human capability. Bandura suggests these three steps to controlling our own behavior: 1. Self-observation. We look at ourselves, our behavior, and keep tabs on it.
2. Judgment. We compare what we see with a standard. For example, we can compare our performance with traditional standards, such as rules of etiquette. Or we can create arbitrary ones like Ill read a book next week.Or we can compete with others or ourselves. 3. Self-response.
If you did well in comparison with your standard, you give yourself rewarding self-responses. If you did poorly, you give yourself punishing self-responses. If, over the years, you find yourself meeting your standards and life loaded with self-praise and self-reward, you will have a pleasant self-concept (high self-esteem).
If, on the other hand, you find yourself forever failing to meet your standards and punishing yourself, you will have a poor self-concept (low self-esteem). (Boeree, 1998, p. 4) In these self-evaluations, Bandura includes self-efficacy because it influences people greatly and decides what people will do. If a person is comfortable with a given activity, the person is more likely to take part in it. On the other hand, people will tend to stay away from activities that make them feel uncomfortable. This could in turn, create a person who is very confident or one that is intimidated easily.According to our text, the higher a persons feelings of self-efficacy, the better that person tends to do at a wide range of tasks. And such success, of course, can ultimately lead to more generalized positive feelings about oneself-changes in the self-concept and in evaluations of it (Baron, 1998, p.
489). It is obvious that Albert Bandura has made a large impact on modern psychology, for he has contributed a lot of brilliant, new ideas to the field. His straight-forward, behaviorist-like style makes good sense to most people. His action-oriented, problem-solving approach likewise appeals to those who want to get things done, rather than philosophize about ids, archetypes, actualization, freedom, and all the many other mentalistic contructs other psychologists tend to dwell on.Banduras great skill became more noticed when he became president of the APA (American Psychological Association) in 1973. His great contributions in the field of psychology were also recognized when he received the APAs Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions in 1980. In 1953, he began teaching at Stanford University, and to this day he continues to work there.
Bibliography Albert Bandura, Dorothea Ross, and Shelia Ross, Limitations of Aggressive Film- Mediated Models, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Vol. 66, 1963, pp.3-11. Bandura, Albert (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Baron, Robert A. (1998).Psychology: Fourth Edition.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Boeree, Dr. C. George.Psychology Department of Shippensburg University. (1998).
Personality Theories: Albert Bandura. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html (22 April 2000) Bury, Danielle J. Bentley College, Mass. (4 May 1998).
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bentley.edu/students/b/buryj dani/televisi.htm (22 April 2000) Theories of Personality: Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel. (1999).Homepage For Psych 2B3. http://www.science.mcmaster.ca/Psychology/psych2b3 /lectures/banmisch-1.html (22 April 2000) Psychology.