African Americans and the Struggle
For Independence, 1763- 1783
The Rising Expectation of the African Americans and the struggle for Independence was a great thing for blacks they started rise up over slavery, they made a big impact in the wars, and they got the Declaration of Independence from Thomas Jefferson.
I.The Crisis of the British Empire
1)The Great struggle.
2)The two empires Great Britain and France.
3)The independence movement and the rising of hope for black’s freedom.
4) In 1689, the British and French fought in many wars.
C) North America
E) Caribbean Sea
5) The great conflict escaladed during the French and Indian War.
A) It started in North America in 1754.
B) It spread in 1755 to Europe.
C) In 1755 the French and their Indian allies defeated Virginian and British troops.
D) Not until 1758 did the Britain undertake a vigorous and expensive military effort.
E) In 1763 Britain had forced France to withdraw from North America.
F) Spain received New Orleans and the huge French province of Louisiana in central North America.
6) France and Spain, the eastern woodlands Indians could no longer resist white encroachment.
A) Florida swamps still remained a refuge for escaping slavery.
B) The bonds weakened between the thirteen colonies.
7) The British officials made Americans pay taxes.
A) For the costs empire.
8) England was entirely reasonable that the government should start taxes.
A) Trading goods with whom they pleased.
B) Paying taxes to only locals.
9) In the 17 60 Parliament repeatedly passed laws that Americans didn’t like.
A) The Proclamation Line of 1763.
B) The Sugar Act of 1764.
C) The Stamp Act of 1765.
10) In New York City in October 1765 the Stamp Act took steps toward united resistance.
A) The import of British goods.
B) In 1766 Parliament repeal the Stamp Act.
C) In 1767 it forced the New York Assembly to provide quarters.
D) British troops enacted the Townshend Act.
E) They taxed such things as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea.
11) In 1770 the Boston Massacre.
12) May 1773 when Parliament passed the Tea Act.
A) The act gave the British East India Company a monopoly over all tea sold in American colonies.
13) In December 1773, Boston’s radical Sons of Liberty dumped shiploads of tea in the harbor.
A) In early 1774 Boston sent more troops in the city to punish economically.
14) In September 1774 the Continental Congress met in Philadelphia.
15) By November 1774 the Massachusetts Minutemen made a military
II.The Declaration of Independence and African Americans.
1)The Declaration of Independence that the Continental Congress adopted on July 4, 1776.
A)It was drafted by a slaveholder in a slave owning country.
B)Thomas Jefferson wrote “that all men are created equal;”
C)Men like Thomas Jefferson and John Adams served on the draft committee.
D)Jefferson, Adams, and Benjamin Franklin submitted the draft declaration.
E)The British aroused African Americans to revolt against their masters.
F)Jefferson and the other delegates did not mean to encourage African American.
G)Black people were in attendance when Patriot speakers made unqualified claims.
H)Most white people would not deny that black individuals were human beings.
I)The literal meaning of the Declaration, which meant changing American society.
J)The revolutionary ideology that supported their claims for independence.
II a. The Impact of Enlightenment.
A)At the center of the ideology was the European Enlightenment.
B)Roots of this essentially intellectual movement, also known as the Age of Reason.
C)Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica was published in England in 1687.
D)Newton used mathematics to portray an orderly, balanced universe that ran according to natural laws that humans could discover.
E)The Revolution that began in England during the early eighteenth century.
F)That’s what made the Enlightenment of particular relevance to the Age of Revolution.
G)John Locke’s essay “Concerning Human Understanding” was published in 1690.
H)Locke created governments to protect their natural rights to life, liberty and private property.
I)Locke also maintained that human mind at birth was a tabula rasa.
J)Most Americans became acquainted with Locke’s idea.
K)During the French and Indian war in the 1760s Americans, both black and white, interpreted British policies and actions.
L)George Washington declared in 1774 that “the crisis is arrived when we must assert our rights or submit to every imposition.”
M) Phillis Wheatly and Benjamin Banneker achieved a lot by being writers.
II b. African Americans in the Revolutionary Debate.
1)In the 1760s and 1770s powerful slaveholders such as George Washington talked of liberty.
2)Those who lived in or near towns and cites had access to public meetings and newspapers.
3)Great Britain and the contradictions between demanding liberty for oneself.
4)The 1760s had shaken traditional assumptions about government.
5)Those in England who believed that white Americans must submit to the British.
6)The most famous writer in London is Samuel Johnson.
7)As early as 1763, James Otis of Massachusetts warned that “those who every day barter away men’s liberty.”
8)Thomas Paine whose pamphlet Common Sense rallied Americans endorse independence.
9)In 1776 he asked them to contemplate “with what consistency or decency they complain so loudly.”
10)Slavery helped improve the situation in North and upper South during the war.
III.African American s in the War for Independence.
1)Benjamin Quarrels, the Negro’s role in the Revolutionary War.”
2)Loyalist American allies on the other African Americans.
3)Black men just as eagerly fought on the British side as Loyalist.
4)In August 1776 the British landed a large army at Brooklyn, New York.
5)Saratoga, New York when the British army took control of the Hudson River.
6)In July 1775 Washington forbade the enlistment.
7)The Continental Congress was ratified by Washington in 1775.
IV.The Black Loyalists.
1)Patriot leaders resisted employing black troops by the mid 1775.
2)Thomas Jefferson later claimed that thirty thousand slaves escaped in Virginia.
3)The black Loyalist were most numerous in the low country of South Carolina and Georgia.
4)In 1783 the war ended and then ten thousand slaves left Savannah and Charleston.
5)On November 7, 1775 Lord Dunmore issued a proclamation.
6)In 1780, at least twenty of Thomas Jefferson’s slaves joined Lord Cornwallis’s army.
V.The Black Patriots.
1)On July 1775 Washington’s policy to the contrary happened.
2)The Revolutionary War to its conclusion.
3)Bunker Hill on June 1775 was a bloody battle.
4)Peter Salem who gained freedom in returned for his military at Lexington and Concord.
5)Prince Hall became a prominent black leader.
6)Dunmore’s use of African-American made his army strong.
7)He succeeded with Negroes faster.
VI.The Revolutionary and Emancipation.
1)African Americans risked there live for the Patriots.
2)In the 1770’s most of these legislatures were debating.
3)The North was the most powerful at this time.
4)In the Chesapeake is where some of these forces operated.
5)In the Quakers families were engaged in international business.
6)Benjamin Lay a former slave holder moved to Quaker to dominated the colony.