Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action Affirmative action is described as the term meant taking appropriate steps to eradicate the then widespread practices of racial, religious, and ethnic discrimination. The history of affirmative action starts a long time before this definition was stated during the early 1960’s. It starts back to the Declaration of Independence where it states all men are created equal. It moves toward the Emancipation Proclamation, the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments which involved the freeing of slaves, abolishing slavery, conferred citizenship on all persons born in the United States, and guaranteeing voting rights to all citizens. There were also many court cases that helped move forth into affirmative action.A few examples would be Buchanan v.

Warley, Plessy v. Ferguson, and Brown v. Board of Education. The latter court case was a real firestorm over affirmative action, which ruled that all local, state, and federal laws that enforced segregation in education was striked down. President John F.Kennedy first used the phrase “Affirmative Action” when he issued Executive Order 10952.

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This order created the Equal Opportunity Commission or the EEOC and contractors on projects financed with federal funds to “take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, ant employees are treated during their employment without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin.” President Kennedy also pushed for more legislation but was not alive to see it go through. Proceeding Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson took over the fight and pushed for the passing of Civil Rights Act of 1964, which barred discrimination in the variety of private and public settings. It included prohibiting discrimination in private facilities, outlawed discrimination in federally-funded-programs, and prohibited discrimination by both private and public employers and so forth.Still under Johnson’s control, the Executive Order 11246, placed the responsibility for affirmative action enforcement with the Department of Labor.

This lead to the OFCCP, which is the Department’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Program, which made Affirmative Action stronger in for contractors and made them submit affirmative action plans. LBJ did much for affirmative action programs and did not receive direct assault until 30 years later by more recent politicians. Nixon took over and helped affirmative action by producing the Philadelphia Plan and supporting the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, which extended EEOC’s jurisdiction. Nixon’s support was short-lived to receive votes and then turned his back to all.Moving forward to Regan’s Long legacy of trouble he made a strong oppression to affirmative action in the early eighties to receive more votes from “an increasing amount of insecure white middle class voters.” He had an enormous negative impact on affirmative action by cutting funds to the OFCCP and EEOC and to repel some to the acts that had been passed prior. He was a on a constant attack to affirmative action falsely labeling related programs as “racial quotas” and “reverse discrimination.” President Bush was not help with affirmative action, staying very quiet about it and trying to stay out of the fight fore new laws.

When Clinton came to office he was a hope for the civil rights community by his cabinet including four blacks, three women and two Hispanic men. He also had more women and minorities in his executive appointments that any other president. In 1995 he delivered a speech at the National Archives that announced a five-month review of affirmative action.The newest let down to affirmative action is proposition 209 that was proposed in California that ended affirmative action to all state programs. People are saying that this Proposition will be felt everywhere. In conclusion, Secretary of Labor Elizabeth Dole stated, “Despite the growing awareness among corporate leadership of the bottom-line value and economic imperative of including minorities and women in senior corporate management progress has been disappointingly show, and barriers persist which stop able people from achieving their full employment potential.

” Bibliography Cozic, Charles P. Civil Liberties Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, Inc.Kluegel, James R.

Beliefs About Inequality Americans’ Views of what is and What Ought to Be. New York: Aldine De Gryter. “Time Line of Affirmative Action”. Americans United for Affirmative Action.

[cited 1997]. Available from http://www.auaa.org/timeline/ 1997.

Affirmative Action

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION A NECESSARY POLICY TO PREVENT DISCRIMINATION AND INEQUITIES OR A DISCRIMINATIVE AND INEQUITABLE POLCY INTRODUCTION Historically, there have been arguments about what Affirmative Action (AA) really is.

The basis of the argument for the most part, debates the goal(s) of AA. Is the goal of AA to erase past inequities for the disabled, minorities and/or women without protest? Or is Affirmative Action a culture or spirit that rewards diversity and differences? Basically there are two definitions or schools of thought for AA. The first school of thought is that AA is an umbrella term for laws and policies that the United States Executive, Judicial, and legislative bodies have mandated.

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Specifically, AA is a series of social policies and statutes that regulate activities and laws with the primary intent to achieve equity and increase opportunity for all. The second school of though is that AA is an umbrella term defining a broader set of activities whereby public and private institutions voluntarily incorporate practices and polices to increase diversity, opportunity and equity. Under this school of thought, AA is in spirit and an institutional policy.The intent of this paper is to address the serious and profound arguments of both schools of thought. In addition, this paper will address issues relative to determining whether or not AA is necessary instrument for the demise of discrimination and the formation of justice and whether or not AA needs to be maintained, modified or terminated. I. Affirmative Action Background A. A Brief History of AA in the United States of American Contrary to popular belief, the concept of AA actually began prior to the executive order signed by President John F.

Kennedy in 1961.The concept of AA began upon the signing of Amendment XIII of the Constitution. 1. The Late 19the and Early 20th Century America began to deal with the inequities and lack of justice for mean of African decent in the 1800s. In my opinion, the initial and most significant policy or law relative to AA was Amendment XIII to the Constitution.

The 13th Amendment states, “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction” (US Constitution, Amendment 13, Section 1). Further cited, “Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation”, (US Constitution, Amendment 13, Section 2). While the intent of the 13th amendment was to abolish slavery and begin the long process of just and equal rights for all American citizens.Historians cite various reasons for the 13tha amendment, some say it was Lincolns understanding and belief that slavery was wrong.

Other Historians cite that Lincoln had no choice but to free the slaves in hoes of African American men joining the losing forces of the North during the civil war. Whatever the reason, slavery was now against the law. Soon after the execution of the 13th Amendment, the governing forefathers once again determined and agreed that it was necessary to clarify citizens rights. Directly resultant, the 14th, 15th, 16th and 19th Amendments were executed. All of these amendments were necessary modifications to the highest law of the land to establish justice and equity for all Americans.2. The Middle of the 20th Century By the midpoint of the 20th century America still did not truly realize the intent and fruition of equal rights for all. As such, once again there was a need to clarify the rights of Americans.

The late 1950s and early 60s there was a television in over 70% of homes in America. This forum of mass and popular media brought about an all time public knowledge of racial injustices. One could say that the television a proponent of civil rights, as directly resultant of its popularity, there were major changes in Americas views and attitudes on civil rights.

In 1961, President John F. Kennedy signed Executive Order (EO) 10925. This EO was significant, as it introduced the term “Affirmative Action” to America. The order instructed federal government contractors to “take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are treated equally without regard to race, color, religion, sex, or national origin” (Kennedy, EO 10925, 1961).

The Kennedy EO also created the Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity.While the Kennedy administration began AA, it was the Johnson administration that really added the provisions that would truly allow for effective implementation of AA. Under the Johnson administration, the US Government enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1064. This act was and still is considered landmark legislation, as it prohibited employment discrimination by large employers (a large employer is defined as an employer with 15 or more employees). The key was that the act governed all employers, not just government contractors like the Kennedy EO. The Civil Rights Act established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).As a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act, Johnson issued EO 11246, which required expansion of job opportunities for minorities in government contracting firms. This order also established the Office of Federal Contract Compliance (OFCC) a division of the Department of labor, which was chartered to administer the order.

Finally in 1967, Johnson amended the order to include women. 3. The 70s, 80s and 90s There were quite a few AA executive orders, policies and laws issued under the Nixon administration.In the early part of his administration, Nixon and his administration, authorized flexible goals and timelines to correct under-utilization of minorities by federal contractors, in 1971 the order was amended to include women. Also in 1971, Nixon, under EO 11625 direct federal agencies to develop comprehensive plans and programs for Minority Business Enterprise (MBE) to enhance and promote minority business participation in government contracting programs. However, in 1973 Nixon, in what is considered one of Nixons “trickiest actions”, issued a memorandum identifying “Permissible Goals and Timelines in State and Local Government Employment Practices” (Memorandum, Nixon, 1973).

This memorandum provided guidelines and policy that for corporations to use when implementing goals timetables and impermissible quotas. Clearly, this memorandum cited Nixons goal to eliminate the quota system initiated in 1969. From 1978 until the present, there have been many Supreme Court rulings, Executive orders and other AA legislation in-acted. The 1980s under both the Reagan and Bush administrations the focus was on economic empowerment and set the stage for future attempts at ending AA.

Outside of Reagans 1983 EO 12432 execution, there were no material laws or policies in support of AA executed. The period ranging from 1984 through the mid 1990s it was an unpretentious era for AA. It was not until 1995 when President Clinton announced his “mend it, dont end it” (Washington Post Archives, 1995) policy on AA did the fight to maintain AA revive.

Contrary to the Clinton Administrations policy, in 1996 the state of California Proposition 209 was passed. This law, a definite blow to AA, permits gender and racial discrimination that is “reasonably necessary” to the “normal operation” of public education, employment and contracting (Clause (C) of Prop. 209, 1996) In 1998, the ban on AA went into affect at the University of California.B. Affirmative Action Laws AA laws prohibit discriminatory practices and bias treatment. AA laws are composed of federal and state statutes that are based upon the Constitution of the US. As noted above, AA laws are basically anti-discrimination policy and regulations that are executed at the federal, state and local government levels. These laws and regulations are designed and implemented in an attempt to prevent and in some cases “correct past” inequities and discrimination based upon a persons race, sex, religion, creed, national origin, physical ability, and age.

Just recently AA was expanded to include laws to prevent discrimination based upon sexual preference and orientation. C. The effects of Affirmative Action on Women, African Americans and the Disabled The enduring effect s of historical oppression include the losses of adequate education and honorable employment that has haunted the African American, disabled and women in America. AA preferential programs, laws and policies were established with the intent to “correct” the action s and behavior of those individuals and entities guilty of past unlawful discrimination. The AA Quota system was designed to redistribute the unjust enrichment of the past.

Racial, gender and physically challenged preferences for societal re-balancing cannot be denied. 1. Women The implementation of AA has created cracks in the proverbial corporate glass ceiling. Women now constitute approximately 35% of the worlds labor force (Department of Labor Statistics, DOL Website, 1999). Labor trend analyzers cite that women of all racial and ethnic groups are more than likely to be employed in service industries, finance, real estate, wholesale and retail trade.While AA activities and provisions have effected progression for women in certain industries, America as a whole has a ways to go.

The 1998 Gallup/Newsweek poll showed that between 1987 and 1997, the proportion of women holding the title of executive vice president rose from 7 to 12 percent. Those at the senior vice president level rose from 18 to 35 percent (Gallup/Newsweek, 1998, 6). 2. African Americans AA laws and policies such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, opened doors that were locked for African Americans.

The “Quota” system, while controversial, insisted that corporations have a certain percentage of minorities in management level positions. In addition, AA laws allowed for minority students admission in schools that would not have been accessible otherwise. and 3. Bibliography 1.

Lyberger-Ficek and Sternglanz (1975) uncited reference in Gross.R.D.

, (1987) Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour, Hodder and Stoughton. 2.Condry, J., Condry, S., (1976) Sex Differences: A study in the Eye of the Beholder Child Development 47 (1976) 817 in Fausto Sterling, A., (1992) Myths of Gender, Biological Theories about Women and Men, (p150) New York: Basic Books.

Affirmative Action

Why did the textile workers union in the southern United States spread so rapidly?The textile industry was, at one time, one of the largest industries in the south.

Starting in the late 1800s with small local looms, and spreading to become corporations who controled the south and whose influence stretched internationally. One of the first textile industries came to Gaston County North Carolina, and its huge success led to the opening of mills across the Carolinas and Virginia. As these industries grew they began to control more and more of its employees lives. These huge corporations were permitted to take advantage of individuals because of their inability to fight back. The employyees of these mills lived in conditions resembling that of slaves before the civil war. They were worked greuling hours in inhospitable prisons called textile plants, yet were paid on average less than any other industrial worker in America.

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In the early twentieth century a sentiment of contempt began to grow between the laboring class and the all-powerful corporation. The masses began to push for union representation.The importance of this industry is represented by the industries numbers. Textiles was the foundation of southern economy. In 1900 there were one hundred seventy-seven mills in North Carolina, but by the early nineteen twenties, that number had grown to over five hundred, with fifty in Gaston County alone.

Textiles was a booming industry in the south. South Carolina employed only 2,053 people in the industry at the turn of the century, but by 1920 nearly 50,000 people worked in mills, one sixth of South Carolinas population. Virginias textile industry grew just as quickly with the incorporation of the Riverside Cotton Mills which had only 2,240 spindles and a mere one hundred looms.

By the turn of the century the mill expanded and operated 67,650 spindles and 200,000 looms. Growth seemed to continue almost exponentially until the depression set in in 1929.It could easily be said that the depression was the cause of the ill will that the workers felt toward their employers. Although the mills seemed to be doing great, grossing sales in the billions of dollars, the working class in the mills were seeing very little of the industries success. Textile workers earned less than any other laborer, and in North Carolina average wages were the least. With the success as abundant as it was in the textile industry, it is no wonder that the laborers sought uninization since they were seeing so little of the profit at their end of the industry. In 1902 only one textile workers union had been created in Virginia was reported by the state Labor Commisioner.

It had forty members, of whom none were employed (Smith 52). So, massive strikes were impossible to organize and because of this the workers had little leverage. There were still small local strikes that were mostly unsuccessful.

One of which was reported in Mill on the Dan. When Samuel Gompers, president of the American Federation of Labor visited Danville, Virginia where in response to their attempts to organize hoped to catalyze the endeavors. A single mill went on strike in a city that was supported by five others. The company did not compromize, and slowly the workers trickled back to their jobs. In 1929 the first notable strike broke out in Gaston County. This massive strike was preceded by a breif strike in nearby Mecklinburg County, and other smaller labor disputes in counties surrounding Gaston, but this strike, called the Loray Mill Strike, began the massive spread of unionization sentiment in the south. The year of 1929 marked the boom of the spread of unionization in the south, agitated by the success of the Loray Mill strike.South Carolinas, as well as Virginias industry executives were fearing the spread of this push for unization would spread across North Carolinas borders and into their states.

Their fears were not unwarranted. The last major labor battle in textile south was in Ronoak Rapids, North Carolina between pro-union laborers and the J. P. Stevens Company where workers joined the TWUA (Textile Workers Union of America) and soon merged with the Amalganted Clothing Workers Union of America to form ACTWU (the Almagated Clothing and Textile Workers Union of America) creating a union giant with over 400,000 members. Soon afterward nearly all of te souths textile corporations were unionized. From 1929 when the TWUA was first formed to 1976 when the ACWU and the TWUA merged, over 140,000 textile workers had joined the union. Why did the union gain support so rapidly? Their were seversal factors which led to the exppediance of expansion. First of all, leadership was a major issue in the growth of the union.

A new whisper rose in Gaston county and throughout the South, the voice of labor leadership asking concessions from the employes (Cope and Wellman 163). Labor leadership had arose, but because of the terrible conditions workers had to endure it wasnt very difficult for the leaders to carry the masses into the unavoidable labor battle. History has proven that any oppressed people can by persuaded to rise up with the aide of profecient leadership. Hitlers rise to power is but one examle among many. The civil rights movement is another headed by Martin Luther King Jr.

and Booker T. Washington. The rise of the working class in Russia under the leadership of lenin and Stalin is still another. The textle workers in the south are no exception. They were oppressed by the overpowering executive giants who controlled their lives. As the industry had grown, mill towns sprang up.

These villiages were built by the mills, and housed its laborers. At first these towns seemed to create a healthy sybiotic relationship between the employees and their employers, but these mill towns werent the free housing and free living utopias they were marketed as. These people of these towns began to resemble the plantation houses and surroundeing slave houses during the period of slavery in American history. Much like the slaves the textile workerss worked in trade for housin and food. The mills offered a paycheck, but they also offered a line of credit at a mill owned store which was then deducted from the individuals paycheck. Rent was also deducted. There were cases when workers came home with only a few centts left on their checks after deductions were made.

This relationship does not seem benificial to the worker, but it worked under the close bonds of local ownership. One small time mill owner, when strikes began to pop up, noted that, Last winter, when the snow was on the ground and times were hard, we took care of our employees, and they appreciate it; theyre not going back on us at this time (Cope and Wellman 164). However, as more and more mills became incorperated and workers lost touch with their employers, these serine conditions in the mill towns changed to conlict.

One conversation in Rise Gonna Rise is a testament to the new conditions.Weve been working all our lives in the cotton mill, and you the speakers wife cant take no moe. I just wish theyd get somebody up in there thats got enough sense to run the mill without trying to push the help to deathIm gonna retire (28).The wifes response to this statement was simply, He says hes gonna quit, but he aint.

Its his life (28). The industry heads intended to keep these people in this slave like position. They payed them little so that they couldnt save up money to leave and even used threats to deep workers in the mills. One worker sayed,It was a stinking job. I got paid minimum wage. Two dollars and somethingMy supervisor told me, youd better do a good job and youd better not quit because you wont get another job anywhere if you do.She asked him why, and the only response he could think of was Because we need a spinner (Conway 92). One employee possible charaterized the mill best when he called ti a sweatshop, slave prison (Hall 187)The villiages were in as bad a shape as the the treatment of the workers.

In Like a Family the author found a study of the cotton mill villiages conducted by the government. The report was not commendable.Piedmont farmers who moved to the mill village found much of what they had come for regular pay, easier work, and familiar surroundings- yet at a cost they could not have foreseen. At first, it was heaven to them to work in the mills and draw a payday, however small. But drawing a payday did not always lead to a better life, partly because of the condition in the factory villages. The smaller villages and those in the country are often primitive in the extremeLarger villages, particularly those located in urban areas and owned by sizable corporations, boasted of grated roadsBut these communities were the exceptions not the ruleVillages are dirty and streets unkept, and the very sight of the village is a horror. Workers lived in these conditions and worked in prisons.

They worked in factories that had no windows and were surrounded by barb-wire fences. The executives had been able to push the work day to an average of twelve hours, while the law prohibited an individual to work over ten. The executives found loopholes in the labor laws, and by doing so employed children, working them up to even fifteen hours a day. Knowing all this, the motivation of the workers is obvious: they wanted change, and a better life. This motivation was but one of the reasons the TWUA spread so quickly. However, motivation alone was not enough to create change. Without a union to back them, the workers could do little about this outright oppression. These horrible conditions were but one of the reasons that the spread of the TWUA was such a rapid growth.

In conditions like this people are willing to do anything. They are much more motivated to create change and at every oppurtunity they took advantage of anything they could to benefit themselves and to decrease the powers of the textile giants who controlled their lives. All they actually needed was for the oppurtunities to present themselves.

The TWUA had much help, but until they found their leaders who organized the masses of willing people, their mere desires and hopes were useless. This leadership came in many forms and from many different people. Each single battle or strike seemed to have its own organizers. Without these organizers nothing would have happened. It seemed that the people were reluctant to join unions for fears of fulfilled threats.

However, organizers persisted. For various reasons, from political asperations to simple human kindness, leaders steped up and exited workers into unionization. The executives at a Virginia mill noted that, The union has held quite a number of meetings, to some extent coercive measures have been adopted, in order to get the operatives into the union (Smith 51), and even President Fitzgerald himself noted that, It is true that in many instances the nefarious influence of the prefessional agitator has found fertile soil in the American workmans brain (Smith 264). These proffesional agitators as Fitzgerald caled them were the men who stepped up to protect the workers rights.

However, Fitzgerald does seem to give these men a negative connotation but this was more than likely because of the fact that he was an executive at the Fitzgerald and Ray Co. (Smith 265). Robert Walsh was one of these political agitators. As a member of the National Workers Labor Board (NWLB), pushed the workers to organize your unions, strong and liberal, fearless and far-seeking, and to push until there will remain not one wage earner in the country deprive of full voice in determining the cinditions of his job (Hall 186).

Walsh could have possibly started single-handedly the influx of workers into unions. The event that marked the turning point of the battle betwwen the companies and the small unions began in columbus, Georgia. A mill in that area fired employees who recently joined a local branch of the TWUA, and as a result a strike incurred.

Walsh prompted the NWLB to intervene on the workers behalf. The NWLB set up laws pertaining to that particular mill which forced the company to abolish contracts prohibiting its employees to join unions. Although these laws only pertained to that individual mill, the success achieved spread new hope in union throughout the south. After the WWI, when American men who had given up their jobvs to their wives during war time, came home expecting better conditions. Along with these expectations came a new mentality to fight for them. The TWUA which was founded in 1901 in the northern New England mills gained 70, 000 members in the years following the war (Hall 186). With the unions new found strength a seris of strikes traversed the south between 1919 and 1921, flowing like a wave and changing the face of employer-employee relatiuonships. The wave began on the outskirts of textile mill concentrations.

In columbus, South Carolina the union striked in selected mills. Theyre demands were recognition and a fourty-eight hour work week. The TWUA now centered on North Carolina. One hundred and fifty workers walked out after their weekly pay was cut in half when the war-time bonus was dropped. They called for union support and the next day the TWUA banner was behind them as Highlands #1 plant striked as well. Rather than negotiate the company closed both plants. The Governoer of North Carolina, Thomas bicket also played a part in the spread of unionization. Bicket outlawed discrimination in hiring on the bases of organazation affiliation.

The Union also reached a compromise. The plants were reopened to a work week less five hours, yet an unchanged pay rate. This union success only instogated union growth even further. Within a few weeks these standards spread to mills in Belmont Concord and Connapolis (Hall 189). Southern textile workers had finally begun to see what the union represented and as laws were created to prohibite discrimination because of union affiliation, it was easier and less risky for employees to sign the union card.

By the end of 1919 the TWUA had recognized 45,000 members in the Crolinas alone (Hall 194-196). The union fight fell off during the depression as mill owners simply could not afford to meet strikers demands, and when strikes did occur plants simply shut down and owners were happy not to have to run all winter long at a loss. However, by 1927 the union flame reignited. In henderson, North Carolina a walkout began the resurgence of the TWUA. Although the strike failed with threats of evictions, it did gain the TWUA eight hundered members. The hardest of the unions battles were yet to be fought.

In 1929 violent strikes broke out. Unsatisfied employees were fighting against the strech-out policy of the mills. This policy layed off individuals and forced larger work loads on the remaining workers. First, Elizabethton, Tenesse walked out. After the Sherriff, J. M.

Moreland, a major unionest backer was forced out of office and a local businessman who supported the TWUA was forced into submission by tricky lawmakers, the strike was ended with none of the original resolutions met (Hall 214). Soon afterward, another violent strike broke out in Gaston County North Carolina. Gaston County epitomized the phenomenal wartime growth of the southern textile industry, as well as its postwar instability (Hall 214). This was probably the most violent strike in the history of the textile workers battle.

The strike ended with the plice chief dead, a leading unionist shot in the back, looting of union buildings conducted be police organization, and the State militia intervening on behalf of the mill. The strike feel with their leaders death, the aquital of her killers, and a conviction of seven union members for the killing of the police chief. Another such battle in Marion, North Carolina stopped before it started. The company expected the strike and when the picketers arrived, the sheriff and his deputies were waiting. The thrrew tear gas at them and when they turned to run they were shot in the back.

It was later found out that the shooters had a list of men to kill and aimed specificly at them, the strike leaders (Hall 217). This wave of strikes was largly unsuccesful, but because of the extreme measures used to break the strikes it was obvious that they were effective and supported. With the noteriety theat came with these extreme cases the role of the TWUA and the voice of unionism spread. In 1930, the Dan River Mills (Dan River, North Carolina), the largest textile company in the south began its struggles. The vice-president of the TWUA went to the city, and hoping for support fromt eh AFL poured all of the unions recources into the workers.

However, as the AFL did not provide support the strike withered away. In 1932 hoseriy workers in High Point, North Carolina walked out. They demanded and end to wage cuts and a few days later 15,000 other textile workers striked beside them (Hall 218).

The union was steadily spreading, but it had not wet reached its peak yet.Betwwen the years of 1933 and 1934, the federal government finally stepped in on the workers side. Under Franklin D. Roosevelts new deal laws were extablished to protect the workers rights. A minimum wage was established and child labor was outlawed. However, in actuality, this had little effect on the lives of the workers.

The little money that the workers made by the national minimum wage increase was taken back by the mills by raising the price of rent, workers were still evicted for joining unions (only excuses were used instead of reasons). However, dispite all of this the union had its largest growth ever: from 40,000 members in September 1933 to 270,000 members in August of 1934 (Hall 304). With the ineffectiveness of the NIRA, the workers were outraged. The President of one local branch of the union asked for federal help before, as he wrote it, WE HAVE TO CALL OUR UNION MEMBERS TO ARMS AGAINST THIS FORDED TAIL EVAIL (Hall 307). The enraged unioneasts striked across the region again in 1933, much like those on 1929.Along with the NIRA the New Deal releif programs for the unemloyed also helped the stikers.

Strikers were garunteed releif when they went on strike. Also, other New Deal programs were created. Discrimination because of union affiliation was prohibited. However, workers were still evictd for joining unions. (Hall 300-301). A native of the Graniteville Mill in South carolina said that she had never joined a union, for reasons that to her seemed the essence of common sence (Hall 306).

There was no union whatever in Graniteville S.C. before the National Industrial Recovery act was make law as the Employers would not allow ti they would discharge anyone who joined a Union, but after the Law was passed and put in effect, we thought that we would be protected by the Federal Government and that no Employer could discharge any worker becau7se they joined a Union of their own choosing. On June 19, 1933, just three days after roosevelt signed the NIRA, she paid her dues and became a full member of the TWUA On August 8 the second hand got orders to fire her on the grounds that she coulnt keep up her work. If her work had not been satifactory, she concluded, they would have fired her long before.

They discharged me for joining the Union. (Hall 306-307)

affirmative action

Affirmative Action is very essential to minorities of color, sex, and socio-economic status. In the past, African Americans have fought to have equality from the right to vote to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The case of “Brown vs. The Board of Education” is suppose to show that there is a “separate, but equal” was the case, but affirmative action made that case have it’s true purpose. In the present there is a controversy of affirmative action since the 1978 case of Regents of the University of California v.

Bakke. This will show the history of affirmative action, its purpose, court cases of how it is related, and different viewpoints of affirmative action.In the Civil Right Act of 1964, it was intended to have success for African Americans, but there were still issues with employment and education opportunities. “However, it’s meaning was greatly altered transforming it from a policy that prohibited the use of color or race in employment, education, and government contracting to a policy of race anBibliographyusef, why affimativeaction, 1997

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Affirmative Action

Affirmative ActionShould a man be hired for his skills or for the color of his skin? Is racial diversity in the business world more important then the most qualified workers? Affirmative action has become an important topic in todays society to better diversify the different races in America. Affirmative action is a set of public policies that were designed for the elimination of discrimination toward race, color, sex, etc. These policies are under attack today because of the unfairness toward the more qualified people. Increasing opportunities for a minority that has suffered past discrimination is the cause for affirmative action, and for the reverse discrimination toward the majority. Many people view discrimination toward one race today to compensate for the discrimination of another race in the past as unfair. This reverse discrimination is unfair treatment toward the majority.

Affirmative actions are policies created to give preferential treatment to the discriminated, but also discriminate as well.Affirmative action was first referenced to in 1961 with the signing of Executive order 10925 (Brunner). With this the Committee on Equal Opportunity was created, and was mandated that projects financed with federal funds take affirmative action to ensure that hiring and employment practices are free of racial bias (Brunner). Three years later, in 1964 President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights act that prohibits any form of discrimination (Brunner). On June 4, 1965, President Johnson defined the concept of affirmative action saying, that civil rights laws alone are not enough to remedy discrimination (Brunner). Supporters of affirmative action say that the government must make up for the past by aiding groups that have been discriminated against.

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They argue that goals for hiring are necessary to integrate fields traditionally closed and minorities because of discrimination. Does achieving these goals help the American population?College admissions are a great example of affirmative action. Colleges across the country must admit a certain number of minorities every year into their college. To admit minorities though comes at a cost to the majority. Colleges can only admit a certain number of people in every year as well as certain number of minorities. To do so they must turn down applicants from entering their school that may be more qualified or better fit for the education.

Even medical schools are forced to follow the rules set to help minorities. Until recently, medical schools used a numeric point system to rank candidates in the admission process (Croasdale). However, the government ruled this form of admission process unconstitutional forcing schools to rethink their admission process (Croasdale). Some people view the racial preference in college admissions as a positive thing, saying that diversity is a benefit for all students (Bowen). While others view this is a discredited achievement toward the minorities as well as discrimination toward other races.Some people find affirmative action as a good thing in todays society.

Arguments that are for affirmative action include social good: compensatory justice; and the ideal of equality (McElroy). Affirmative action drives a wedge between individual worth and economic success (McElroy). It is affirmative action that gives minorities the rights to many parts of life they did not have before.

They are able to get jobs and get into colleges that they though were impossible. Minorities as doctors are good because minority physicians are more likely to practice in medically underserved areas, improving access to care for these generally poor, minority communities (Croasdale).Affirmative action in todays society has gotten out of hand.

Minorities are receiving benefits that discriminate the majority in America. To repay a minority because of previous discriminations toward them is unfair punishment to the people that it affects today. Reverse discrimination should not be allowed to help diversify America in todays world. Affirmative action are policies set up to help the discriminated, however they discriminate toward the majority at the same time.Works CitedBowen, William G. Gratz v.

Bollinger Debating Racial Preference. 2005March 28, 2005Brunner, Borgna. Timeline of Affirmative Actions Milestones Fact Monster. 2005 < http://www.factmonster.com/spot/affirmativetimeline1.html>March 27, 2005Croasdale, Myrle.

Affirmative action ruling affects medical schools, too American Medical News. 2003< http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2003/07/14/prsb0714.htm>March 27, 2005McElroy, Wendy. What Does Affirmative Action Affirm? Zetitics.

2005< http://www.zetetics.com/mac/affirm.htm> March 26, 2005

Affirmative Action

Confucius and Confucianism-Books related to Confucius and Confucianism-Confucius and Confucianism- LIFE OF CONFUCIUS Confucius was believed to have been born in 551 BC., in the state of Lu, known today as the Shandong province. His parents, who died while he was a child, named him Kong Qui.

Confucius was derived from the Latin word Kongfuzi which means Great Master Kong. Confucius was the most influential and respected philosopher in Chinese history. His ideas were the single strongest influence on Chinese society from around 100 BC. to the AD. 1900’s. The Chinese government made his ideas the official state philosophy and many nearby countries honored his beliefs. Confucius wanted to gain the position as an adviser to a wise ruler, but he failed. He hoped to do this in order to be able to employ his ideas for reforming society.

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If it wasn’t for the disciples of Confucius his teachings would have never been spread around China, and he would have never been made known. His teachings were never written down by him, but his conversations and sayings were written down by his disciples in the analects. CONFUCIANISM Confucianism was the single most important thing in Chinese life.

It affected everything in China; education, government, and attitudes toward behavior in public and private life. Confucianism is not a religion, but it is more a philosophy and a guide to morality and good government. At the time Confucius was born, China was in a constant state of war, and rapid political change altered the structure of Chinese society so much that people no longer respected the established behavioral guidelines. Confucius stated that the ideal person was one of good moral character. The ideal person was also truly reverent in worship and sincerely respected his father and his ruler. He was expected to think for himself, guided by definite rules of conduct. As Confucius said, he was expected to take “as much trouble to discover what was right as lesser men take to discover what will pay”.

Confucius believed that this type of behavior by rulers had a greater effect on the people than did laws or codes of punishment. So when these types of people were rulers, their moral example would inspire the people to lead good lives. Confucius died sometime around 479 B.C., and his philosophy was not very well known. If it weren’t for his disciples his ideas would probably still be unknown.

Confucius never wrote anything down himself; his disciples wrote all of his sayings down in a collection of books called the Analects. These contain all that modern day man knows about Confucius. There existed two important Confucian philosophers-Mencius (390-305 BC) and Xunzi (mid 200’s B.C.). They held beliefs similar to Confucius but they were somewhat different. Mencius’s viewpoint was that people were born good, and that they had to “preserve the natural compassion of the heart”.

Xunzi opposed this by saying that people could be good and live peacefully only if their minds were shaped by education and conduct. Both of these ideas parallel Confucius’, in that they both state that people can be good. Confucianism was concerned primarily with the needs of society, and unlike Buddhism and Taoism, not the ability for a person to live in harmony with nature. Beginning in the 200’s B.C. Buddhism and Taoism began to affect and reshape the standards of Confucianism, and things such as nature came into play. Around A.

D. 200 to 600, there was a rapid decline in the Confucian Beliefs in China. This was partly because Confucianism now had to compete with Buddhism and Taoism, which were developed around this time.

These religions were to Confucianism as night is to day, in other words, they were exact opposites. Buddhism and Taoism were largely concerned with the meaning of suffering and death, while Confucianism largely ignored these. The revival of Confucianism began around the 600’s and was fully revived by the 700’s. In the 1100’s, there was a movement lead by Zhu-Xi called the Neo-Confucianism movement. He developed a branch of this movement known as the rational-wing, it dealt with the study of Li, the relationship between humans and nature.

Another branch was called the intuitional-wing and it dealt mostly with enlightenment by a combination of meditation and moral action. In the 1900’s there was a clash between Confucianism and Western beliefs such as Communism. For many years after the Communist change in China, the Government greatly opposed Confucianism because it tended to look into the past rather than to the future. However, all government opposition ended in 1977.

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