Adhd Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders among children. About 3 percent to 5 percent of American children are affected by this disorder. This disorder is commonly mis-diagnosed in children who are very hyperactive, assuming that very hyperactive kids have this disorder. In this paper I plan to discuss ideas such as: the symptoms, theories of causation, risks, and how this disorder is looked at and treated. There are signs that a child may be affected by ADHD, which are very noticeable in some cases.Some of the physical symptoms that are involved include hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsitivity. When discussing inattention, the idea that individuals have difficulty sustaining interest in finishing a task, strangely, a person with ADHD may have no problems with attention while doing an activity they enjoy, but wont be able to finish a complicated or new task. People with this disorder are often noted for their inconsistencies, have bad handwriting, miss details, and are often forgetful.

But because the individual over-focuses on something of great interest, or something that is highly stimulating, many times an untrained observer may assume that this ability to concentrate negates the possibility of ADHD being a concern, especially when they see children able to pay attention while working one-on-one with someone, doing something they enjoy, or can sit and play a video game or watch television for hours on end. In addition to problems with attention, people with ADHD can be fidgety, and appear to be moving around constantly. Which leads me to myth that all people with ADHD are hyperactive, this is not always the case.Because society has traditionally thought of a person with ADHD as being hyper, many children who have this disorder with no signs of being hyperactive are not being identified or treated.

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For those individuals who are not hyperactive, they are often thought of as a day-dreamers or an absent-minded professors. The non-hyperactive children with ADHD most often seem to be girls, but it is 5 to 7 more common in boys. (Booth, 2000) Another symptom that is very common in people with ADHD is impulsitivity, which means that the individual seems to be unable to think before they act. They may interrupt others who are talking, blurt out inappropriate comments, or have a hard time waiting their turn.

Regardless of the consequence, people with ADHD can out as if they are out of control. Although researchers are still studying exactly what causes ADHD, they know what doesnt cause it, and that is sugar. Sugar and food additives dont cause ADHD, and in research study in 1982 the National Institutes of Health concluded that restricting sugar and food additive consumption only helped about 5% of the children with this disorder. Minor brain injuries from early infection, or birth complications also have been ruled out, head injuries can only explain a few cases of ADHD, not all of them. Television watching, poor home and school environments also dont cause ADHD, they may contribute to behavior that resembles the symptoms.Instead new theories point to low levels of activity in some parts of the brain as an indicator of ADHD.

In one study, investigators found that control attention, meaning that areas were less active and caused inattention. Cocaine and heavy alcohol use during pregnancy may also distort developing nerve cell. Using alcohol during pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which leads to low birth weight, and certain physical and intellectual impairments. Many FAS children also show the same symptoms as children with ADHD.

I feel that you can rule out genes, because they probably account for some ADHD causes. Children with this disorder usually have at least one relative with ADHD, with one-third of fathers with ADHD having children with disorder also.More important, identical twins are often both affected.(National ADD, 97) Treatment is available for people who have ADHD, which includes therapy and drug treatment.

But in order to make sure these symptoms are from an actual case of ADHD, and not from an emotional or physical disorder, a medical professional would need to look at the history of the symptoms, ruling out any learning disabilities, or physical problems or environmental factors that may have caused problems. If the doctor is diagnosing a child, school report cards that contain comments about the childs inattention and discipline problems are helpful factors that help point out ADHD. Another important step in diagnosis is option to use treatment that involves stimulant drugs, such as Ritalin, which reduce hyperactivity and help individuals to pay better attention. Studies show that nine out of ten children usually improve.If the symptoms worsen, the doctor may adjust the dosage. Using therapeutic treatment, combined with drug therapy has proved to be a successful tool in handling ADHD.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is something the never goes away, it follows you into adulthood. Individuals with ADHD may want to join a support group to share in their frustration and successes when they are older. This is a disorder that is treatable, and for those who are not treated, serous socially problems are a problem I have learned a great deal about the ADHD disorder. I feel that anyone who has children, or works with kids should be aware of ADHD, because it affects a lot of children.A big concern is really recognizing the symptoms, and getting treatment for these kids so they can have a chance at living a successful life, just like everyone else. Bibliography : The National ADD Oraganization(1997) Booth, Rebecca. What Does ADD Look Like.

(2000) www.addorg. (pg.1-7).


Retirmenet seems to be one of the most often overlooked areas of yound adults plan in life. Simply because it seem so far way, it is an area that is subject to procrastination. People are expected to live longer now than ever before. Technology is booming. This is a good reason for us young adults to start saving for our future.

Do we really think Social Security will be there for us when we reach the age to retire. I personally ahve started saving for my future. It simply make sense to learn about the stock and its options available. I have read the book Twenty Five Mistakses you don’t want to make inthe Stock Market by David E Rye. It gave me alot of inforamtion on the stock market. When planning for retirment, Individual Retirement Accounts offer several benefits.

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however careful planning is essential to ensure that adequate amount of money is saved and stocks are chosen carefully. Most people think that if they are not already wealthy, they don’t need to do any financial planning. Wrong! That is the first mistake. Changing interest rates, unexpected unemployment, illness and hard times are all part of our lives. No on cares more about your well being than you. It is never too late to start saving for your future. Start asking questions.

The first step in financial plan is defining what you really want out of life. Putting in on apper will help you create a solid, well thought out investment plan. A worksheet will help you to figure hout how much you can realistically put away for your future. You will also need to know what your are worth. ASking yourself what your financial goals re.

How much money do you want to make.Finally there is no better time than now to take a look at your future. Most of us would like to be rich someday. Some of us will try any get rich quick schemes that comes along, including the lottery. Others will invest in bogus ground floor opportunities to make it happen. Still others will seek out the advice of an investment broker and buy the recommended sotck or mutual fund without much thought. Even though our inevestment plans are on consistent, and if we manmage to set investing goals, we dont follow them to achieve the financial security we desire. As a result, most of us won’t become rich from the investments in the stock market.

Investing money the smart way takes discipline, time and patience. If you start out with a well thought out financial goal, you are likely to succeed. Good Luck!!!


“ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is like living in a fast moving kaleidoscope where sounds, images and thoughts are constantly shifting.” (NIMH-ADHD) ADHD can be very frustrating and difficult for children.

Medication and treatment are available and have been proven effective. Parents can also get frustrated and they could do something wrong. ADHD is effectively treated with medication and therapy. There are three basic types of ADHD. They are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. (NIMH-ADHD) A child may have one, any combination of two or even all three of these types. If a child has a hard time keeping their mind on one thing or if they get bored easy they have a type of ADHD that is called inattention.

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If the child has hyperactivity ADHD, they are always moving, can’t sit still, and talk incessantly. They squirm in their seat or pace around the room. If the child has impulsive ADHD they are unable to think before they do something. They might run out into the street without looking, or blurt out something completely inappropriate. Parents must understand that everyone shows signs of ADHD at times, so the DMS (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) has a specific guideline for determining ADHD. (Aschenbrenner, Diane S.) Showing signs of ADHD could mean the child is suffering from chronic fear of mild seizures.

If the child has problems in school it could mean one of three things. One is the child actually has ADHD. The child has trouble paying attention and may get frustrated with school. Two, the child does not have ADHD the child is just bored with the subject because of the ease of it and therefore shows signs of ADHD.

Or three, the child again does not have ADHD, but is having trouble because they are just not developmentally ready for the material. There is no direct link from ADHD to bad parenting or inadequate home-life. Although, if the child does have ADHD, good parenting and support is necessary. Bad parents only make things more difficult for both the children and the parents. Parents often ask, “What did I do wrong?” but in fact the question is often times irrelevant. Scientists have learned a lot about ADHD in the past decade. They have determined things that do not cause ADHD that people usually blame right away. They are too much television, food allergies, excess sugar, poor home-life, and poor schools.

Scientists have evidence that ADHD comes from biological causes and not by home environment. Scientists believed, for a while, that ADHD was caused by minor head injury. Although some children who had ADHD have had head injury, not all did, so that theory was disproved quickly. (Attention Deficit Disorder Association) The NIMH (National Institute of Mental Health) linked a person’s ability to pay attention to the level of brain activity.

(Attention Deficit Disorder Association)Now that the scientists sort of know what causes the disorder, they can treat it. There are many programs and methods out there to help children with ADHD and their parents. Parents must realize that, “Medication alone is not the answer, research has shown that the most effective treatment and management of ADHD is a combination of medication and behavior modification programs or therapy.” (About ADD) This is the most important statement an ADHD parent could hear. The type of drugs used are called stimulants or psychostimulants, they are both the same.

Stimulant medications are used to control the symptoms of ADHD. They are not used to control behaviors. (About ADD) What they do is Alter the level of neurotransmitters in the brain. (Attention Deficit Disorder Association) They were first used in 1937. Effects of stimulant medications usually take effect right away. A common stimulant medication is Ritalin. People thought that was an addictive drug. In fact stimulant medications do not cause dependence.

(Attention Deficit Disorder Association) “People diagnosed with ADHD, who were properly treated with stimulant medications such as Ritalin, have lower risks of developing problems with alcohol and other drugs than the general public.” (Attention Deficit Disorder Association) Stimulant drugs actually help out in other ways than helping them focus and reduce hyperactivity. They also improve physical coordination, such as handwriting and ability in sports. (Attention Deficit Disorder Association) Stimulant drugs other than Ritalin are Adderall, Dexedrine, and Cylert. The problem with any stimulant drug is that the child only gets beneficial effects from the drug for a short time, like three months.

Then the child needs to switch to another drug. “It’s hard to keep up with the medication, they change so often and are sometimes worse.” (Parent of ADHD child) The most common drug, Ritalin, usually lasts all day but is only effective for a shorter overall time, like two months.

(About ADD) The other drugs, Adderall, Dexedrine, and Cylert usually last a longer overall period of time, like four to five months, but must be taken more often. For example, two children could have ADHD and one is given Ritalin that the child only has to take once a day but the will have to change the medication after one or two months. The other child could be given Dexedrine, and that child would have to take it two or three times a day but it would have beneficial effects for four to five months. Of course, as with any drug, there are side effects. Parents must keep in mind though, that these side effects are very rare.

Most kids taking a stimulant drug don’t experience any ill effects. (Aschenbrenner, Diane S.) Some rare side effects are sleep difficulties, stomachaches, headaches, appetite reduction, drowsiness, irritability, nervousness, hallucinations, and bizarre behavior.

(About ADD) “Getting him to eat is difficult because the medication just depletes his appetite.” (Parent of ADHD child) That is one side effect that Andrew experiences. That is not much though when you consider what he is like with out taking the medication at all. Andrew also goes to therapy. That helps a lot. ADHD children really do need a combination of therapy and medication.

“Having ADHD can mar the person’s relationship with others. ADHD can disrupt daily life consume energy, and lower self-esteem.” (NIMH-ADHD) All of these are reasons why someone with ADHD should go to therapy. They help the child understand what is happening to them and how to control it. Whereas the medication just reduces symptoms.

“It is possible that we will pinpoint the biological basis of ADHD and learn how to treat it even more effectively or even prevent the disorder from happening.” (NIMH-ADHD) This would be a huge breakthrough in medical science. ADHD effects about three to five percent of children. That is about one child per classroom. (NIMH-ADHD) ADHD effects two to three times more males than females.

(NIMH-ADHD) Which brings up the point, how do they transition to living on their own. ADHD usually continues into adolescence and adulthood. “I don’t know how I’m going to handle him in the future.” (Parent of ADHD child) Going from adolescence to adulthood is a hard transition for many people even without ADHD. Many people go through counseling.

So kids with ADHD must make the change as gradual as possible. They should continue therapy even after they live on their own. They should talk to their doctor about continuing medication. It is very important that an ADHD child does this because it would be rough if they did not continue to seek therapy. ADHD is a life complicating disorder. It would be easier if no body had to suffer though this horrible disorder, but until they figure that out they do. However people with this disorder can be successfully be treated with a combination of medication and good therapy.

A set of good parents helps too. People with bad parents are worse off in life in general. An ADHD child needs a lot of support in the process of growing up in order to be successful in society.


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