Acid Rain

Acid Rain Acid Rain is caused by pollution containing sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and ozone ( SO, NOx, and O ) is released into the air. These chemicals are absorbed into clouds and results in Acid Presipitation ( Acid Rain, Acid Snow, Acid Hail, Acid Sleet ).

When the chemicals aren’t absorbed into clouds, they can drift for miles and fall to the ground, resulting in Acid Deposition, or dry deposition. When Acid Rain falls into water it is mixed in with the normal water and causes the pH of the entire body to be raised. Measurments on the pH ( potential Hydrogen ) scale, rise exponentialy, thus, a lake with a pH of 4 is ten times as acidic as a lake with a pH of 5, and a lake with a pH of 3 is 100 times as acidic, After many rain falls of Acid rain, the pH of a normal lake ( 5.8 ) to 4. Acid Rain has been known to reach the acidicy of pH 2, ( battery acid has a pH if 1 ) this is a drastic change, as normal rain is average pH 5.2.Acid Rain can dissolve limestone and chalk, and corrodes outdoor structures. Statues and monuments that are left unprotected can fall victim to the unpredjudiced destruction of acid rain.

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Acid Rain reacts to different types of soil and rocks in two ways. 1) Acid rain will dissolve alkaline rocks and soil, or will neutralize the alkalinity. 2) Acid rain will increase the acidicy of already acidic rocks and soil, such as granite, or the soil which results from corroded granite.

Acidic chemicals, and alkaline chemicals react to each other by reducing the alkalinity or acidicy of each other. Which ever has the strongest pH level, usually will neutralize or reduce the pH of the other, but after the reaction is complete, both substances have undoubtably changed, their pH moved closer to neutral ( pH 7 ). This knowledge led to the use of Salting. Salting ( dropping salt, chalk, or limestone into lakes and streams ) is a done to reduce the acidicy of the water, and neutralize the water, counteracting the effects of the acid rain. This involves literally tonnes of salt, and an Airplane with a bombay. This is only a temporary solution, as putting salt into the water will not stop the acid from coming, it just neutralizes what is already there.

Acid Rain

Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this seriousproblem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal withright now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late. Inthe following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife andhow our atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain. STATISTICS Although there isvery little data, the evidence indicates that in the last twenty to thirty yearsthe acidity of rain has increased in many parts of the United States.

Presently,the United States annually discharges more than 26 million tons of sufferdioxide into the atmosphere. Just three states, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois areresponsible for nearly a quarter of this total. Overall, two-thirds of thesuffer dioxide into the atmosphere over the United States comes from coal-firedand oil fired plants. Industrial boilers, smelters, and refineries contribute26%; commercial institutions and residences 5%; and transportation 3%.

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Theoutlook for future emissions of suffer dioxide is not a bright one. Between nowand the year 2000, United States utilities are expected to double the amount ofcoal they burn. The United States currently pumps some 23 million tons ofnitrogen oxides into the atmosphere in the course of the year. Transportationsources account for 40%; power plants, 30%; industrial sources, 25%; andcommercial institutions and residues, 5%.

What makes these figures particularlydistributing is that nitrogen oxide emissions have tripled in the last thirtyyears. CAUSES Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada andthe North Eastern United States. One of the main causes of acid rain is sulphurdioxide.

Natural sources which emit this gas are volcanoes, sea spray , rottingvegetation and plankton. However, the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal andoil, are largely to be blamed for approximately half of the emissions of thisgas in the world. When sulphur dioxide reaches the atmosphere, it oxidizes tofirst form a sulfate ion. It then becomes sulphuric acid as it joins withhydrogen atoms in the air and falls back down to earth. Oxidation occurs themost in clouds and especially in heavily polluted air where other compounds suchas ammonia and ozone help to catalyze the reaction, converting more sulphurdioxide to sulphuric acid. However, not all of the sulphur dioxide is convertedto sulphuric acid.

In fact, a substantial amount can float up into theatmosphere, move over to another area and return to earth unconverted. Thefollowing are the stoichiometric equations for the formation of sulphuric acid:S (in coal) + O2_ SO2 2 SO2 + O2_ 2 SO3 SO3_ + H2O H2SO4 Nitric oxideand nitric dioxide are also components of acid rain. Its sources are mainly frompower stations and exhaust fumes. Like sulfur dioxide, these nitrogen oxidesrise into the atmosphere and are oxidized in clouds to form nitric acid. Thesereactions are also catalyzed in heavily polluted clouds where iron, manganese,ammonia and hydrogen peroxide are present. In Canada, the main sulfuric acidsources are non-ferrous smelters and power generation.

On both sides of theborder, cars and trucks are the main sources for nitric acid(about 40% of thetotal), while power generating plants and industrial commercial and residentialfuel combustion together contribute most of the rest. In the air, the sulfurdioxide and nitrogen oxides can be transformed into sulfuric acid and nitricacid, and air current can send them thousands of kilometers from the source.When the acids fall to the earth in any form it will have large impact on thegrowth or the preservation of certain wildlife. NO DEFENSE One of the directeffects of acid rain is on lakes and its aquatic ecosystems. There are severalroutes through which acidic chemicals can enter the lakes. Some chemicalsubstances exist as dry particles in the air while others enter the lakes as wetparticles such as rain, snow, sleet, hail, dew or fog. In addition, lakes canalmost be thought of as the “sinks” of the earth, where rain thatfalls on land is drained through the sewage systems eventually make their wayinto the lakes.

Acid rain that falls onto the earth washes off the nutrients outof the soil and carries toxic metals that have been released from the soil intothe lakes. Another harmful way in which acids can enter the lakes is spring acidshock. When snow melts in spring rapidly due to a sudden temperature change, theacids and chemicals in the snow are released into the soils. The melted snowthen runs off to streams and rivers, and gradually make their way into thelakes. The introduction of these acids and chemicals into the lakes causes asudden drastic change in the pH of the lakes – hence the term “spring acidshock”.

The aquatic ecosystem has no time to adjust to the sudden change.Areas in Ontario mainly southern regions that are near the Great Lakes, suchsubstances as limestone or other known antacids can neutralize acids enteringthe body of water thereby protecting it. However, large areas of Ontario thatare near the Pre-Cambrian Shield, with quartzite or granite based geology andlittle top soil, there is not enough buffering capacity to neutralize even smallamounts of acid falling on the soil and the lakes. Therefore over time, thebasic environment shifts from an alkaline to a acidic one. This is why manylakes in the Muskoka, Haliburton, Algonquin, Parry Sound and Manitoulindistricts could lose their fisheries if sulphur emissions are not reducedsubstantially.

WHAT IS ACID RAIN? Acidity is measured using a pH scale, with thenumber 7 being neutral. Consequently, a substance with a pH value of less than 7is acidic, while one of a value greater than 7 is basic. It is also worthwhileto note that the pH scale is logarithmic; that is, a substance of pH of 6 is 10times more acidic than another with a pH of 7. Generally, the pH of 5.6 has beenused as the baseline in identifying acid rain, although there has been muchdebate over the acceptance of this value. Interestingly enough, a pH of 5.6 isthe pH value of carbon dioxide in equilibrium with distilled water. Hence, acidran is defined as any rainfall that has an acidity level beyond what is expectedin non-polluted rainfall.

In essence, any precipitation that has a pH value ofless than 5.6 is considered to be acid precipitation. The average mean of pHrainfall in Ontario’s Muskoka-Haliburton lake country ranges between 3.95 and4.

38 about 40 times more acidic than normal rainfall, while storms inPennsilvania have rainfall pH at 2.8 it almost has the same rating for vinegar.Already 140 Ontario lakes are completely dead or dying. An additional 48 000 aresensitive and vulnerable to acid rain due to the surrounding concentrated acidicsoils. ACID RAIN CONSISTS OF….

? Canada does not have as many people, powerplants or automobiles as the United States, and yet acid rain there has becomeso severe that Canadian government officials called it the most pressingenvironmental issue facing the nation. But it is important to bear in mind thatacid rain is only one segment, of the widespread pollution of the atmospherefacing the world. Each year the global atmosphere is on the receiving end of 20billion tons of carbon dioxide, 130 million tons of suffer dioxide, 97 milliontons of hydrocarbons, 53 million tons of nitrogen oxides, more than threemillion tons of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc and other toxicmetals, and a host of synthetic organic compounds ranging from polychlorinatedbiphenyls(PCBs) to toxaphene and other pesticides, a number of which may becapable of causing cancer, birth defects, or genetic imbalances. COST OF ACIDRAIN Interactions of pollutants can cause problems. In addition to contributingto acid rain, nitrogen oxides can react with hydrocarbons to produce ozone, amajor air pollutant responsible in the United States for annual losses of $2billion to 4.

5 billion worth of wheat, corn, soyabeans, and peanuts. A widerange of interactions can occur many unknown with toxic metals. In Canada,Ontario alone has lost the fish in an estimated 4000 lakes and provincialauthorities calculate that Ontario stands to lose the fish in 48 500 more lakeswithin the next twenty years if acid rain continues at the present rate.Ontariois not alone, on Nova Scotia’s Eastern most shores, almost every river flowingto the Atlantic Ocean is poisoned with acid. Further threatening a $2 million ayear fishing industry. THE DYING Acid rain is killing more than lakes. It canscar the leaves of hardwood forest, wither ferns and lichens, accelerate thedeath of coniferous needles, sterilize seeds, and weaken the forests to a statethat is vulnerable to disease infestation and decay. In the soil the acidneutralizes chemicals vital for growth, strips others from the soil and carriesthem to the lakes and literally retards the respiration of the soil.

The rate offorest growth in the White Mountains of New Hampshire has declined 18% between1956 and 1965, time of increasingly intense acidic rainfall. Acid rain no longerfalls exclusively on the lakes, forest, and thin soils of the Northeast it nowcovers half the continent. EFFECTS There is evidence that the rain is destroyingthe productivity of the once rich soils themselves, like an overdose of chemicalfertilizer or a gigantic drenching of vinegar. The damage of such overdosing maynot be repairable or reversible. On some croplands, tomatoes grow to only halftheir full weight, and the leaves of radishes wither. Naturally it rains oncities too, eating away stone monuments and concrete structures, and corrodingthe pipes which channel the water away to the lakes and the cycle is repeated.Paints and automobile paints have its life reduce due to the pollution in theatmosphere speeding up the corrosion process.

In some communities the drinkingwater is laced with toxic metals freed from metal pipes by the acidity. As ifurban skies were not already gray enough, typical visibility has declined from10 to 4 miles, along the Eastern seaboard, as acid rain turns into smogs. Amongone of the serious side effects of acid pollution on humans is respiratoryproblems.

The SO2 and NO2 emissions give rise to respiratory problems such asasthma, dry coughs, headaches, eye, nose and throat irritations. An indirecteffect of acid precipitation on humans is that the toxic metals dissolved in thewater are absorbed in fruits, vegetables and in the tissues of animals. Althoughthese toxic metals do not directly affect the animals, they have serious effectson humans when they are being consumed.

For example, mercury that accumulates inthe organs and tissues of the animals has been linked with brain damage inchildren as well as nerve disorders, brain damage and death. Similarly, anothermetal, Aluminum, present in the organs of the animals, has been associated withkidney problems and recently, was suspected to be related to Alzheimer’sdisease. Acid particles are also deposited on to buildings and statues, causingcorrosion. For example, the Capitol building in Ottawa has been disintegratingbecause of excess sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere. Limestone and marble turnto a crumbling substance called gypsum upon contact with the acid, whichexplains the corrosion of buildings and statues. In addition, bridges arecorroding at a faster rate, and the railway industry as well as the airplaneindustry have to expend more money in repairing the corrosive damage done byacid rain. Not only is this an economically taxing problem caused by acid rain,but also a safety hazard to the general public. PREVENTION There are three mainsources of acid deposition: coal in electricity, base metal smelting, and fuelcombustion in vehicles.

There are several ways to reduce SO2 emissions and NOxemissions: 1. Reducing NOx emissions: During Combustion NOx emissions arereduced during combustion are reduced primarily by a process called OverfireAir. In this procedure, a portion of the total air required for the combustionprocess is diverted from the burners to an upper furnace.

This causes thecombustion to occur with less O2 than that required, hence slowing down theconversion of atmospheric nitrogen to NO. The process of Low NOx ConcentricFiring operates under the same principal, but involves increases separation ofthe fuel air and secondary air. After Combustion The catalytic reduction system- This system involves the injection of ammonia gas upstream of the catalyticreaction chamber. This gas will react with NO by the following reaction: 4NO +4NH3 + O2_ 4N2 + 6H2O It will react with NO2 by the following reaction: 2NO2+ 4NH3 + O2_ 3N2 + 6H20 The harmless nitrogen gas can then be released intothe atmosphere. 2. Reducing SO2 emissions: Before Combustion 1. Coal Cleaning -The cleaning of coal was originally used to reduce costs from transporting inertmaterial and improving the quality and uniformity of the coal.

However, it hasbeen found to be useful in reducing sulfur content. The cleaning process isperformed gravitationally and is dependent on the density of the sulfur. Theprocess is therefore successful in removing pyritic sulfur (FeS2) due to itshigh specific gravity, and relatively unsuccessful in removing chemically boundorganic sulfur. This method is therefore limited by its dependence on thepercent of pyritic sulfur in the coal. The pyritic sulfur content varies fromregion to region, so those with the highest percentage will be in the highestdemand.

2. Burning of Low Sulfur Coals – Some power plants have chosen to reducetheir sulfur dioxide emissions by burning coal of low sulfur content. (Subbituminouscoal is of lower sulfur content than bituminous coal.) A process is veryexpensive, due to the high demand for subbituminous coal. During Combustion 1.FBC – Fluidized Bed Combustion – This process allows sulfur dioxide emissions tobe reduced during the combustion process.

A limestone or sand bed are crushedand fluidized. It is essential that a balance is established between the heatliberated within the bed from fuel combustion, and the heat removed by the fluegas as it leaves. The limestone is able to react with the SO2 and reduceemissions by over 90%. After Combustion 1.

Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization – Thisis a highly effective and cost efficient system of flue gas desulfurization. Thewet scrubber is located downstream of the boiler, and consists of eitherlimestone, lime, or sodium hydroxide. Limestone is the most popular choice andreacts with the gas by the following reaction: CaCO3 + SO2 + H2O + O2_ CaSO3+ CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O The flue gas enters the absorber and is re-emitted afterbeing scrubbed, at which time the waste solids are removed and disposed of.

2.Dry Scrubbing – The process of dry scrubbing involves the contact between dryinggas and the atomized liquid (alkaline based). Upon contacting the flue gas, thedrying gas will convert the atomized droplets into a dry product that can beseparated and disposed of. The dry scrubbing process requires less power tocomplete than wet scrubbing.

FINAL THOUGHTS Acid rain is very real and a verythreatening problem. Action by one government is not enough. In order for thingsto be done we need to find a way to work together on this for at least areduction in the contaminates contributing to acid rain. Although there areright steps in the right directions but the government should be cracking downon factories not using the best filtering systems when incinerating or if thefactory is giving off any other dangerous fumes.Environment

Acid Rain

Mardy Ying Assignment #4WRIT 140RajamannarNovember 10, 1999Smog: The Big StoryThe beautiful mountain ranges surrounding the Los Angeles region make a magnificent view, but unfortunately the smog problem in Los Angeles prevents everyone from enjoying this.

Smog is a large environmental problem that needs to be concentrated on to find solutions. The media, which includes television, newspaper, magazines, and organizations, is delivering messages to inform the public concerning smog, but are these messages expressing the true environmental issues about smog? In the present day world, the media does not adequately explain any environmental issue. Obviously, the media’s main objective is to get the best story; and sometimes the media would do anything to achieve that goal, even if it means to alter the truth and perception. Although the truth is Los Angeles has always been known for its severe smog problem, the media has recently began to hype this problem to the extent of positioning it as disastrous, because the media is constantly on the look out for dramatic news stories.The smog problem in Los Angeles has been portrayed as being disastrous as the media dramatizes the harmful health effects of smog.

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The severity of health effects depends on the smog’s intensity and the amount of smog exposure. For susceptible people with asthma or other lung disorder, any weak level of smog could affect their health. As for healthy individuals, a medium level of smog will be enough to affect them. Smog reduces normal lung function on an individual by inflaming the walls of the lung, and therefore causing chest pains and coughs. This description of smog would be a true news story for the media to cover, but based on today’s media standard, this would not be considered a “story”.

From the media’s view, a “story” is any dramatizing, heart-pounding, or shocking news that would grab the public’s attention. By warning people to stay indoors and avoid outdoor activities when there is a smog alert is more of an exciting “story” than simply stating the facts about smog. Reporting of an increase in hospital visits for lung disorder caused by smog is also a “story” that is worth covering. The media greatly publicizes stories about smog causing harmful health effects on children. Children are a symbol of innocence, so a story about them being threatened by smog is unfortunately more of an exciting story than one about children protected from the harmful effects of smog. Recently, the media reported on a big study of 3,600 Southland school kids who had wheezing attacks that are related to nitrogen dioxide found in smog (Cone B1).

Smog is now seen as life threatening as it was blamed for the death of a 14 year-old brother of Maggie Perales, a Bell Gardens resident, who died from cancer. The brother attended Suva Elementary School in the city of Bell Gardens that is next to chrome-plating plants emitting high level of toxic chemicals into the air (Cone B1). It is this constant exposure to these chemicals that have caused the cancer found in Perales’s brother. There are many more identical stories about children dying from highly toxic chemicals found in smog, because they either live or attend school near polluting factories. Such a death-related story only personifies smog to be like a murderer as it “contaminate our communities and kill our children” as Maggie Perales reacted upon the smog’s deadly force. The media has hyped the smog problem by distorting people’s view about smog according to Dr.

John Peters, Professor of Preventing Medicine at USC School of Medicine. He said, “I’ve heard people say that living in L.A. is like smoking a pack a dayclearly, that’s nonsense. Whether it’s like smoking one cigarette a day, half a cigarette a day, a tenth a daywe don’t know.” That misconception is an example of how the media has hyped the smog problem made by displaying dramatic news stories that alters a person’s perception on smog. As our society has grown to hate cigarettes through campaigns, lawsuits, and those bulletin boards ridiculing cigarettes, Los Angeles is also on the same kind of path dealing with smog.

The hatred towards cigarettes is a result of the media constantly delivering messages saying how cigarettes are killers, and how the cigarette companies have no sympathy for the cigarette-related deaths. This same trend is now seen with smog as being a killer, causing the deaths of innocent children. As a result, it is now a war to fight the smog problem in Los Angeles.Agencies and businesses willing to contribute to programs to help fight the smog war is the kind of story the media wants. The hyped-up media coverage on smog has influenced agencies and businesses to get involve with the fight, because they know that their name of the agency or business will be on the news.

The South Coast Air Quality Management District holds annual Clean Air Awards to reward agencies and businesses in their work to fight this problem. Companies like Costco Wholesale, GTE, and Long Beach Bike Station received big awards in this year’s Clean Air Award in their contribution in helping to clean the air. A large collaboration of 29 different companies has started a program called Quick Charge L.A.

, a $3.5 million project that will be installing 200 charging stations for electric vehicles throughout the entire city. The media recognized that such stories about funded programs like Quick Charge is a “story” to show that there are people willing to fight for better air.In the early fall of 1999, the exciting news about Los Angeles being no longer the Smog Capital of the U.

S. has changed what the media has been covering about smog. The media, with all of its hyped stories, has made smog so disastrous that this exciting news was seen as a huge victory for Los Angeles. There was so much media attention on this story that the media began dramatizing how all the hard work and efforts into air quality control have paid off.

The way the media presented the news to the public was as if Los Angeles had won the smog war, and Los Angeles no longer has to worry about it. This was another example of a misconception the media plays on the public, what the media left out was the fact that Los Angeles could very easily become the smoggiest city in the nation. Houston became the nation’s smoggiest city, only because it had the most stage 1 alerts this year, which was only one more than Los Angeles. Los Angeles still has the very potential to win back its unfortunate title as Smog Capital of the U.S. Even though this city has the toughest anti-smog rules in the world, it was the mild weather this year that was most responsible for the better air quality. Weather is critical to smog formation, and its conditions can easily vary so much that it takes years to confirm air quality trends. The weather may easily heat up next year, and Los Angeles would once again win back its unfortunate title.

According to Bryan Lambeth, a meteorologist with the Texas National Resource Conservation Commission, ” we aren’t yet ready to declare a winner and a loser in the smog wars”. Tim Carmicheal, executive director of the Los Angeles-based environment group Coalition for Clear Air, believes that even though Houston has won the title, the air in Los Angeles is still bad. Houston has the title, because it had the most Stage 1 smog alerts in the country, but “if you look at the number of days we violate the standards, we still have the worst air in the country. It’s still harmful to our health to breathe the air for many, many days this year.” The city should be proud that the smog problem is alleviating, but what Carmicheal was trying to say is that this victory should be a motivation to improve the air quality and prevent future severe smog problems.

Not only is smog a health “disaster” according to the media, it is also an economical “disaster” for businesses causing air pollution. Because the media has hyped the smog problem, communities and environmental groups have largely emerged to demonstrate against industries and refineries. Business groups are worried about the economic impact of possibly reducing the use of refineries to meet the demands of protestors with their tougher anti-smog regulations. If the new anti-smog rules are passed, companies owning large fleets of diesel trucks will be forced to newly equip their fleets with engines that run on alternative fuel other than diesel. The use of diesel fuel has been the cause of cancer in Los Angeles and contributes a large part of smog formation. The Air Quality Management District has already spent $25 million on replacing just 800 diesel trucks with cleaner engines to relieve some of the environmental pressures of smog from diesel trucks, however those companies will be paying a much higher amount for converting their trucks to better engines if the new plans pass.

The new anti-smog regulations are still in debate as business groups arguing that the laws are strict enough for smog control, while the environmental groups and communities are fighting for cleaner air. The perception and the outright creation of the smog “disaster” that the media has played a role in have stirred up contemporary environmentalism based on individualism and self-gratification. Smog is an environmental concern for Los Angeles, and it is good to hear that there is a rise in numbers of environmental organizations and environmentally aware communities demonstrating and protesting to solve this disastrous smog issue. At the same time, there was also a rise in dramatic smog stories presented by the media to hype the smog issue to the extent as being disastrous and a war “enemy”. It seems most likely that all aspects on contemporary environmentalism ranging from agencies to communities were started knowing that they will be on the 7 o’clock news report on NBC. Contemporary environmentalism is nothing but a selfish act by individuals or groups of individuals taking advantage of what the media has to offer, which is public exposure. The media is always on the constant look out for potential smog “stories” to make the fight against smog a huge issue. By hyping the smog problems to the extent as being disastrous, the media builds up dramatic news stories that appeal to the public.

It has become to a point where these dramatic news stories have motivated the society of Los Angeles to fight against smog, not because this society wants cleaner air, but it wants media attention.

Acid Rain

.. an affect the fish in the water in two ways: directly and indirectly.

Sulfuric acid directly interferes with the fish’s ability to take in salt, oxygen and nutrients crucial for daily life. Osmoregulation is the process of maintaining the delicate balance of salts and minerals in their tissues. For freshwater fish, maintaining osmoregulation is key in their survival.

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Acid molecules, which are a result of acid rain in the water, cause mucus to form in the fishs gills. This in return prevents the fish from absorbing oxygen.If the fish are unable to absorb oxygen, the consequence could be the eventual suffocation of fish and the low pH could throw off the balance of salts in the fish tissue.

Salt levels such, as the calcium (Ca+2), levels of some fish cannot be maintained due to pH change. This can results in poor reproduction. The fishs eggs produced would be damaged, they could either be too brittle or too weak. The decreased Ca+2 levels also result in weak spines and deformities.Acid Rain is very tragic when it come to the life of fish, but when nitrogen-containing fertilizers are washed off into the lakes, the nitrogen stimulates the growth of algae, which logically would mean an increase in oxygen production, thus benefiting the fish. This can be beneficial, but because of increased deaths in the fish population due to acid rain, the decomposition process uses up a lot of the oxygen, which leaves less for the surviving fish to take in. Indirectly, sulfuric acid releases heavy metals present in soils to be dissociated and released. For example, aluminum (Al+2) is harmless as part of a compound, but because acid rain causes Al+2 to be released into the soils and gradually into the lakes, it becomes lethal to the health of the fish in the lakes on its life forms.

Some of the pH level effects are ; At pH level six basic forms of food die off for fish. The food sources cannot survive at this pH level. At a pH level of 5.5 there are more deformed adult fish due to lack of nutrients.The fish cannot reproduce. The young have difficulty staying alive, and eventually the older fish will die of suffocation. At pH level 5.

0 the whole fish population will die off. At pH level 4.0 all life forms will die. Fish, being one of the most important members of the food chain, provide nourishment for other creators.Since acid rain is affecting fish, this makes it dangerous for other creators including humans to eat the fish.

Other sea dwellers such as amphibians are also affected by acid ran. The amphibian embryos have membranes that are too tough because of the acids, such that they are unable to break through at the proper time. So, they continue to grow, only to have deformed spines. The affects on water forms are the greatest and most tragic of all of the things that acid rain affects.Acid rain affects all that eat seafood or any other water dwelling life form.

Another things impacted by acid rain are forests and soil. When acid rain falls onto the earth’s surface it causes a lot of damage. The soil is robbed of some vital things. Aluminum that is always present in the soil is freed, and the toxic element is absorbed by the roots of trees. The trees in turn are starved and deprived of vital nutrients such as calcium and magnesium.

Sulfuric acid returns to earth. When the sulfuric acid returns, it clogs up the stomata in the leaves, stopping photosynthesis. In addition, severe frosts may also further aggravate this situation. With sulfur dioxide, ammonia and ozone present in the air, the frost-hardiness of trees are reduced. Ammonia mixes with sulfur dioxide and forms ammonium sulfate. This product forms on the surface of the trees. When ammonium sulfate reaches the soils, it reacts to form both sulfuric and nitric acid.Such conditions also stimulate the growth of fungi and pests like the ambrosia beetle.

When trees are under such stress, they release chemicals such as terpenes which attract the ambrosia beetle. Acid rain also affects the atmosphere. The affects on the atmosphere are mostly due to dry deposition that was mentioned earlier. The floating particles can contribute to haze, which affects visibility.This makes navigation especially hard for air pilots. The acid haze also inhibits the flow of sunlight from the sun to the earth and back. Acid rain also affects architecture. Architecture is affected by both dry precipitation and wet precipitation.

When these particles land on building they eat into the concrete eventually destroying them.This is a potential danger because the infrastructure of the buildings can be destroyed, thus hurting people occupying the building Acid Rain also has a direct affect on you and I. The SO2 and NO2 emissions give rise to respiratory problems such as asthma, dry coughs, headaches, eye, nose and throat irritations.

The indirect affect of acid rain are on the food that we eat. Acid rain is absorbed in fruits, and in the tissues of animals. Although these toxic metals do not directly affect the animals, they have serious affects on humans when they are being consumed.

Acid rain is a huge problem which affects every person living in the world in some sort of way. Acid rain is a problem that can be reduced but not stopped completely due to the needs of our modern society. Some ways that we could help to reduce acid rain is by recycling, carpooling, and reducing.

Acid rain is a problem that can be controlled but it is up to the people of earth to control the problem. Bibliography 1. Heij, G.J.and J.

W. Erisman (Editors). Acid Rain Research: Do we have enough answers? New York: Elsevier, 1995. 2.Comptons New Media Encyclopedia 1996 3.

White, James C.(Editor). Acid Rain: The Relationship between Sources and Receptors. New York: Elsevier, 1988. 4.FAQ on Acid Rain(http://ns.doe.ca/aeb/ssd/acid/acidFAQ.html) Science.

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