Acid Rain

Acid Rain Acid Rain is caused by pollution containing sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and ozone ( SO, NOx, and O ) is released into the air. These chemicals are absorbed into clouds and results in Acid Presipitation ( Acid Rain, Acid Snow, Acid Hail, Acid Sleet ). When the chemicals aren’t absorbed into clouds, they can drift for miles and fall to the ground, resulting in Acid Deposition, or dry deposition. When Acid Rain falls into water it is mixed in with the normal water and causes the pH of the entire body to be raised. Measurments on the pH ( potential Hydrogen ) scale, rise exponentialy, thus, a lake with a pH of 4 is ten times as acidic as a lake with a pH of 5, and a lake with a pH of 3 is 100 times as acidic, After many rain falls of Acid rain, the pH of a normal lake ( 5.8 ) to 4. Acid Rain has been known to reach the acidicy of pH 2, ( battery acid has a pH if 1 ) this is a drastic change, as normal rain is average pH 5.2.

Acid Rain can dissolve limestone and chalk, and corrodes outdoor structures. Statues and monuments that are left unprotected can fall victim to the unpredjudiced destruction of acid rain. Acid Rain reacts to different types of soil and rocks in two ways. 1) Acid rain will dissolve alkaline rocks and soil, or will neutralize the alkalinity. 2) Acid rain will increase the acidicy of already acidic rocks and soil, such as granite, or the soil which results from corroded granite.

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Acidic chemicals, and alkaline chemicals react to each other by reducing the alkalinity or acidicy of each other. Which ever has the strongest pH level, usually will neutralize or reduce the pH of the other, but after the reaction is complete, both substances have undoubtably changed, their pH moved closer to neutral ( pH 7 ). This knowledge led to the use of Salting. Salting ( dropping salt, chalk, or limestone into lakes and streams ) is a done to reduce the acidicy of the water, and neutralize the water, counteracting the effects of the acid rain. This involves literally tonnes of salt, and an Airplane with a bombay. This is only a temporary solution, as putting salt into the water will not stop the acid from coming, it just neutralizes what is already there.

Acid Rain

Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious
problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with
right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late. In
the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife and
how our atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain. STATISTICS Although there is
very little data, the evidence indicates that in the last twenty to thirty years
the acidity of rain has increased in many parts of the United States. Presently,
the United States annually discharges more than 26 million tons of suffer
dioxide into the atmosphere. Just three states, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois are
responsible for nearly a quarter of this total. Overall, two-thirds of the
suffer dioxide into the atmosphere over the United States comes from coal-fired
and oil fired plants. Industrial boilers, smelters, and refineries contribute
26%; commercial institutions and residences 5%; and transportation 3%. The
outlook for future emissions of suffer dioxide is not a bright one. Between now
and the year 2000, United States utilities are expected to double the amount of
coal they burn. The United States currently pumps some 23 million tons of
nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere in the course of the year. Transportation
sources account for 40%; power plants, 30%; industrial sources, 25%; and
commercial institutions and residues, 5%. What makes these figures particularly
distributing is that nitrogen oxide emissions have tripled in the last thirty
years. CAUSES Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada and
the North Eastern United States. One of the main causes of acid rain is sulphur
dioxide. Natural sources which emit this gas are volcanoes, sea spray , rotting
vegetation and plankton. However, the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and
oil, are largely to be blamed for approximately half of the emissions of this
gas in the world. When sulphur dioxide reaches the atmosphere, it oxidizes to
first form a sulfate ion. It then becomes sulphuric acid as it joins with
hydrogen atoms in the air and falls back down to earth. Oxidation occurs the
most in clouds and especially in heavily polluted air where other compounds such
as ammonia and ozone help to catalyze the reaction, converting more sulphur
dioxide to sulphuric acid. However, not all of the sulphur dioxide is converted
to sulphuric acid. In fact, a substantial amount can float up into the
atmosphere, move over to another area and return to earth unconverted. The
following are the stoichiometric equations for the formation of sulphuric acid:
S (in coal) + O2_ SO2 2 SO2 + O2_ 2 SO3 SO3_ + H2O H2SO4 Nitric oxide
and nitric dioxide are also components of acid rain. Its sources are mainly from
power stations and exhaust fumes. Like sulfur dioxide, these nitrogen oxides
rise into the atmosphere and are oxidized in clouds to form nitric acid. These
reactions are also catalyzed in heavily polluted clouds where iron, manganese,
ammonia and hydrogen peroxide are present. In Canada, the main sulfuric acid
sources are non-ferrous smelters and power generation. On both sides of the
border, cars and trucks are the main sources for nitric acid(about 40% of the
total), while power generating plants and industrial commercial and residential
fuel combustion together contribute most of the rest. In the air, the sulfur
dioxide and nitrogen oxides can be transformed into sulfuric acid and nitric
acid, and air current can send them thousands of kilometers from the source.

When the acids fall to the earth in any form it will have large impact on the
growth or the preservation of certain wildlife. NO DEFENSE One of the direct
effects of acid rain is on lakes and its aquatic ecosystems. There are several
routes through which acidic chemicals can enter the lakes. Some chemical
substances exist as dry particles in the air while others enter the lakes as wet
particles such as rain, snow, sleet, hail, dew or fog. In addition, lakes can
almost be thought of as the “sinks” of the earth, where rain that
falls on land is drained through the sewage systems eventually make their way
into the lakes. Acid rain that falls onto the earth washes off the nutrients out
of the soil and carries toxic metals that have been released from the soil into
the lakes. Another harmful way in which acids can enter the lakes is spring acid
shock. When snow melts in spring rapidly due to a sudden temperature change, the
acids and chemicals in the snow are released into the soils. The melted snow
then runs off to streams and rivers, and gradually make their way into the
lakes. The introduction of these acids and chemicals into the lakes causes a
sudden drastic change in the pH of the lakes – hence the term “spring acid
shock”. The aquatic ecosystem has no time to adjust to the sudden change.

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Areas in Ontario mainly southern regions that are near the Great Lakes, such
substances as limestone or other known antacids can neutralize acids entering
the body of water thereby protecting it. However, large areas of Ontario that
are near the Pre-Cambrian Shield, with quartzite or granite based geology and
little top soil, there is not enough buffering capacity to neutralize even small
amounts of acid falling on the soil and the lakes. Therefore over time, the
basic environment shifts from an alkaline to a acidic one. This is why many
lakes in the Muskoka, Haliburton, Algonquin, Parry Sound and Manitoulin
districts could lose their fisheries if sulphur emissions are not reduced
substantially. WHAT IS ACID RAIN? Acidity is measured using a pH scale, with the
number 7 being neutral. Consequently, a substance with a pH value of less than 7
is acidic, while one of a value greater than 7 is basic. It is also worthwhile
to note that the pH scale is logarithmic; that is, a substance of pH of 6 is 10
times more acidic than another with a pH of 7. Generally, the pH of 5.6 has been
used as the baseline in identifying acid rain, although there has been much
debate over the acceptance of this value. Interestingly enough, a pH of 5.6 is
the pH value of carbon dioxide in equilibrium with distilled water. Hence, acid
ran is defined as any rainfall that has an acidity level beyond what is expected
in non-polluted rainfall. In essence, any precipitation that has a pH value of
less than 5.6 is considered to be acid precipitation. The average mean of pH
rainfall in Ontario’s Muskoka-Haliburton lake country ranges between 3.95 and
4.38 about 40 times more acidic than normal rainfall, while storms in
Pennsilvania have rainfall pH at 2.8 it almost has the same rating for vinegar.

Already 140 Ontario lakes are completely dead or dying. An additional 48 000 are
sensitive and vulnerable to acid rain due to the surrounding concentrated acidic
soils. ACID RAIN CONSISTS OF….? Canada does not have as many people, power
plants or automobiles as the United States, and yet acid rain there has become
so severe that Canadian government officials called it the most pressing
environmental issue facing the nation. But it is important to bear in mind that
acid rain is only one segment, of the widespread pollution of the atmosphere
facing the world. Each year the global atmosphere is on the receiving end of 20
billion tons of carbon dioxide, 130 million tons of suffer dioxide, 97 million
tons of hydrocarbons, 53 million tons of nitrogen oxides, more than three
million tons of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc and other toxic
metals, and a host of synthetic organic compounds ranging from polychlorinated
biphenyls(PCBs) to toxaphene and other pesticides, a number of which may be
capable of causing cancer, birth defects, or genetic imbalances. COST OF ACID
RAIN Interactions of pollutants can cause problems. In addition to contributing
to acid rain, nitrogen oxides can react with hydrocarbons to produce ozone, a
major air pollutant responsible in the United States for annual losses of $2
billion to 4.5 billion worth of wheat, corn, soyabeans, and peanuts. A wide
range of interactions can occur many unknown with toxic metals. In Canada,
Ontario alone has lost the fish in an estimated 4000 lakes and provincial
authorities calculate that Ontario stands to lose the fish in 48 500 more lakes
within the next twenty years if acid rain continues at the present rate.Ontario
is not alone, on Nova Scotia’s Eastern most shores, almost every river flowing
to the Atlantic Ocean is poisoned with acid. Further threatening a $2 million a
year fishing industry. THE DYING Acid rain is killing more than lakes. It can
scar the leaves of hardwood forest, wither ferns and lichens, accelerate the
death of coniferous needles, sterilize seeds, and weaken the forests to a state
that is vulnerable to disease infestation and decay. In the soil the acid
neutralizes chemicals vital for growth, strips others from the soil and carries
them to the lakes and literally retards the respiration of the soil. The rate of
forest growth in the White Mountains of New Hampshire has declined 18% between
1956 and 1965, time of increasingly intense acidic rainfall. Acid rain no longer
falls exclusively on the lakes, forest, and thin soils of the Northeast it now
covers half the continent. EFFECTS There is evidence that the rain is destroying
the productivity of the once rich soils themselves, like an overdose of chemical
fertilizer or a gigantic drenching of vinegar. The damage of such overdosing may
not be repairable or reversible. On some croplands, tomatoes grow to only half
their full weight, and the leaves of radishes wither. Naturally it rains on
cities too, eating away stone monuments and concrete structures, and corroding
the pipes which channel the water away to the lakes and the cycle is repeated.

Paints and automobile paints have its life reduce due to the pollution in the
atmosphere speeding up the corrosion process. In some communities the drinking
water is laced with toxic metals freed from metal pipes by the acidity. As if
urban skies were not already gray enough, typical visibility has declined from
10 to 4 miles, along the Eastern seaboard, as acid rain turns into smogs. Among
one of the serious side effects of acid pollution on humans is respiratory
problems. The SO2 and NO2 emissions give rise to respiratory problems such as
asthma, dry coughs, headaches, eye, nose and throat irritations. An indirect
effect of acid precipitation on humans is that the toxic metals dissolved in the
water are absorbed in fruits, vegetables and in the tissues of animals. Although
these toxic metals do not directly affect the animals, they have serious effects
on humans when they are being consumed. For example, mercury that accumulates in
the organs and tissues of the animals has been linked with brain damage in
children as well as nerve disorders, brain damage and death. Similarly, another
metal, Aluminum, present in the organs of the animals, has been associated with
kidney problems and recently, was suspected to be related to Alzheimer’s
disease. Acid particles are also deposited on to buildings and statues, causing
corrosion. For example, the Capitol building in Ottawa has been disintegrating
because of excess sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere. Limestone and marble turn
to a crumbling substance called gypsum upon contact with the acid, which
explains the corrosion of buildings and statues. In addition, bridges are
corroding at a faster rate, and the railway industry as well as the airplane
industry have to expend more money in repairing the corrosive damage done by
acid rain. Not only is this an economically taxing problem caused by acid rain,
but also a safety hazard to the general public. PREVENTION There are three main
sources of acid deposition: coal in electricity, base metal smelting, and fuel
combustion in vehicles. There are several ways to reduce SO2 emissions and NOx
emissions: 1. Reducing NOx emissions: During Combustion NOx emissions are
reduced during combustion are reduced primarily by a process called Overfire
Air. In this procedure, a portion of the total air required for the combustion
process is diverted from the burners to an upper furnace. This causes the
combustion to occur with less O2 than that required, hence slowing down the
conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to NO. The process of Low NOx Concentric
Firing operates under the same principal, but involves increases separation of
the fuel air and secondary air. After Combustion The catalytic reduction system
– This system involves the injection of ammonia gas upstream of the catalytic
reaction chamber. This gas will react with NO by the following reaction: 4NO +
4NH3 + O2_ 4N2 + 6H2O It will react with NO2 by the following reaction: 2NO2
+ 4NH3 + O2_ 3N2 + 6H20 The harmless nitrogen gas can then be released into
the atmosphere. 2. Reducing SO2 emissions: Before Combustion 1. Coal Cleaning –
The cleaning of coal was originally used to reduce costs from transporting inert
material and improving the quality and uniformity of the coal. However, it has
been found to be useful in reducing sulfur content. The cleaning process is
performed gravitationally and is dependent on the density of the sulfur. The
process is therefore successful in removing pyritic sulfur (FeS2) due to its
high specific gravity, and relatively unsuccessful in removing chemically bound
organic sulfur. This method is therefore limited by its dependence on the
percent of pyritic sulfur in the coal. The pyritic sulfur content varies from
region to region, so those with the highest percentage will be in the highest
demand. 2. Burning of Low Sulfur Coals – Some power plants have chosen to reduce
their sulfur dioxide emissions by burning coal of low sulfur content. (Subbituminous
coal is of lower sulfur content than bituminous coal.) A process is very
expensive, due to the high demand for subbituminous coal. During Combustion 1.

FBC – Fluidized Bed Combustion – This process allows sulfur dioxide emissions to
be reduced during the combustion process. A limestone or sand bed are crushed
and fluidized. It is essential that a balance is established between the heat
liberated within the bed from fuel combustion, and the heat removed by the flue
gas as it leaves. The limestone is able to react with the SO2 and reduce
emissions by over 90%. After Combustion 1. Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization – This
is a highly effective and cost efficient system of flue gas desulfurization. The
wet scrubber is located downstream of the boiler, and consists of either
limestone, lime, or sodium hydroxide. Limestone is the most popular choice and
reacts with the gas by the following reaction: CaCO3 + SO2 + H2O + O2_ CaSO3
+ CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O The flue gas enters the absorber and is re-emitted after
being scrubbed, at which time the waste solids are removed and disposed of. 2.

Dry Scrubbing – The process of dry scrubbing involves the contact between drying
gas and the atomized liquid (alkaline based). Upon contacting the flue gas, the
drying gas will convert the atomized droplets into a dry product that can be
separated and disposed of. The dry scrubbing process requires less power to
complete than wet scrubbing. FINAL THOUGHTS Acid rain is very real and a very
threatening problem. Action by one government is not enough. In order for things
to be done we need to find a way to work together on this for at least a
reduction in the contaminates contributing to acid rain. Although there are
right steps in the right directions but the government should be cracking down
on factories not using the best filtering systems when incinerating or if the
factory is giving off any other dangerous fumes.


Environment

Acid Rain

Mardy Ying Assignment #4
WRIT 140
Rajamannar
November 10, 1999
Smog: The Big Story
The beautiful mountain ranges surrounding the Los Angeles region make a magnificent view, but unfortunately the smog problem in Los Angeles prevents everyone from enjoying this. Smog is a large environmental problem that needs to be concentrated on to find solutions. The media, which includes television, newspaper, magazines, and organizations, is delivering messages to inform the public concerning smog, but are these messages expressing the true environmental issues about smog? In the present day world, the media does not adequately explain any environmental issue. Obviously, the media’s main objective is to get the best story; and sometimes the media would do anything to achieve that goal, even if it means to alter the truth and perception. Although the truth is Los Angeles has always been known for its severe smog problem, the media has recently began to hype this problem to the extent of positioning it as disastrous, because the media is constantly on the look out for dramatic news stories.

The smog problem in Los Angeles has been portrayed as being disastrous as the media dramatizes the harmful health effects of smog. The severity of health effects depends on the smog’s intensity and the amount of smog exposure. For susceptible people with asthma or other lung disorder, any weak level of smog could affect their health. As for healthy individuals, a medium level of smog will be enough to affect them. Smog reduces normal lung function on an individual by inflaming the walls of the lung, and therefore causing chest pains and coughs. This description of smog would be a true news story for the media to cover, but based on today’s media standard, this would not be considered a “story”. From the media’s view, a “story” is any dramatizing, heart-pounding, or shocking news that would grab the public’s attention. By warning people to stay indoors and avoid outdoor activities when there is a smog alert is more of an exciting “story” than simply stating the facts about smog. Reporting of an increase in hospital visits for lung disorder caused by smog is also a “story” that is worth covering.
The media greatly publicizes stories about smog causing harmful health effects on children. Children are a symbol of innocence, so a story about them being threatened by smog is unfortunately more of an exciting story than one about children protected from the harmful effects of smog. Recently, the media reported on a big study of 3,600 Southland school kids who had wheezing attacks that are related to nitrogen dioxide found in smog (Cone B1). Smog is now seen as life threatening as it was blamed for the death of a 14 year-old brother of Maggie Perales, a Bell Gardens resident, who died from cancer. The brother attended Suva Elementary School in the city of Bell Gardens that is next to chrome-plating plants emitting high level of toxic chemicals into the air (Cone B1). It is this constant exposure to these chemicals that have caused the cancer found in Perales’s brother. There are many more identical stories about children dying from highly toxic chemicals found in smog, because they either live or attend school near polluting factories. Such a death-related story only personifies smog to be like a murderer as it “contaminate our communities and kill our children” as Maggie Perales reacted upon the smog’s deadly force.
The media has hyped the smog problem by distorting people’s view about smog according to Dr. John Peters, Professor of Preventing Medicine at USC School of Medicine. He said, “I’ve heard people say that living in L.A. is like smoking a pack a dayclearly, that’s nonsense. Whether it’s like smoking one cigarette a day, half a cigarette a day, a tenth a daywe don’t know.” That misconception is an example of how the media has hyped the smog problem made by displaying dramatic news stories that alters a person’s perception on smog.
As our society has grown to hate cigarettes through campaigns, lawsuits, and those bulletin boards ridiculing cigarettes, Los Angeles is also on the same kind of path dealing with smog. The hatred towards cigarettes is a result of the media constantly delivering messages saying how cigarettes are killers, and how the cigarette companies have no sympathy for the cigarette-related deaths. This same trend is now seen with smog as being a killer, causing the deaths of innocent children. As a result, it is now a war to fight the smog problem in Los Angeles.

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Agencies and businesses willing to contribute to programs to help fight the smog war is the kind of story the media wants. The hyped-up media coverage on smog has influenced agencies and businesses to get involve with the fight, because they know that their name of the agency or business will be on the news. The South Coast Air Quality Management District holds annual Clean Air Awards to reward agencies and businesses in their work to fight this problem. Companies like Costco Wholesale, GTE, and Long Beach Bike Station received big awards in this year’s Clean Air Award in their contribution in helping to clean the air. A large collaboration of 29 different companies has started a program called Quick Charge L.A., a $3.5 million project that will be installing 200 charging stations for electric vehicles throughout the entire city. The media recognized that such stories about funded programs like Quick Charge is a “story” to show that there are people willing to fight for better air.

In the early fall of 1999, the exciting news about Los Angeles being no longer the Smog Capital of the U.S. has changed what the media has been covering about smog. The media, with all of its hyped stories, has made smog so disastrous that this exciting news was seen as a huge victory for Los Angeles. There was so much media attention on this story that the media began dramatizing how all the hard work and efforts into air quality control have paid off. The way the media presented the news to the public was as if Los Angeles had won the smog war, and Los Angeles no longer has to worry about it.
This was another example of a misconception the media plays on the public, what the media left out was the fact that Los Angeles could very easily become the smoggiest city in the nation. Houston became the nation’s smoggiest city, only because it had the most stage 1 alerts this year, which was only one more than Los Angeles. Los Angeles still has the very potential to win back its unfortunate title as Smog Capital of the U.S. Even though this city has the toughest anti-smog rules in the world, it was the mild weather this year that was most responsible for the better air quality. Weather is critical to smog formation, and its conditions can easily vary so much that it takes years to confirm air quality trends. The weather may easily heat up next year, and Los Angeles would once again win back its unfortunate title. According to Bryan Lambeth, a meteorologist with the Texas National Resource Conservation Commission, ” we aren’t yet ready to declare a winner and a loser in the smog wars”. Tim Carmicheal, executive director of the Los Angeles-based environment group Coalition for Clear Air, believes that even though Houston has won the title, the air in Los Angeles is still bad. Houston has the title, because it had the most Stage 1 smog alerts in the country, but “if you look at the number of days we violate the standards, we still have the worst air in the country. It’s still harmful to our health to breathe the air for many, many days this year.” The city should be proud that the smog problem is alleviating, but what Carmicheal was trying to say is that this victory should be a motivation to improve the air quality and prevent future severe smog problems.
Not only is smog a health “disaster” according to the media, it is also an economical “disaster” for businesses causing air pollution. Because the media has hyped the smog problem, communities and environmental groups have largely emerged to demonstrate against industries and refineries. Business groups are worried about the economic impact of possibly reducing the use of refineries to meet the demands of protestors with their tougher anti-smog regulations. If the new anti-smog rules are passed, companies owning large fleets of diesel trucks will be forced to newly equip their fleets with engines that run on alternative fuel other than diesel. The use of diesel fuel has been the cause of cancer in Los Angeles and contributes a large part of smog formation. The Air Quality Management District has already spent $25 million on replacing just 800 diesel trucks with cleaner engines to relieve some of the environmental pressures of smog from diesel trucks, however those companies will be paying a much higher amount for converting their trucks to better engines if the new plans pass. The new anti-smog regulations are still in debate as business groups arguing that the laws are strict enough for smog control, while the environmental groups and communities are fighting for cleaner air.
The perception and the outright creation of the smog “disaster” that the media has played a role in have stirred up contemporary environmentalism based on individualism and self-gratification. Smog is an environmental concern for Los Angeles, and it is good to hear that there is a rise in numbers of environmental organizations and environmentally aware communities demonstrating and protesting to solve this disastrous smog issue. At the same time, there was also a rise in dramatic smog stories presented by the media to hype the smog issue to the extent as being disastrous and a war “enemy”. It seems most likely that all aspects on contemporary environmentalism ranging from agencies to communities were started knowing that they will be on the 7 o’clock news report on NBC. Contemporary environmentalism is nothing but a selfish act by individuals or groups of individuals taking advantage of what the media has to offer, which is public exposure.
The media is always on the constant look out for potential smog “stories” to make the fight against smog a huge issue. By hyping the smog problems to the extent as being disastrous, the media builds up dramatic news stories that appeal to the public. It has become to a point where these dramatic news stories have motivated the society of Los Angeles to fight against smog, not because this society wants cleaner air, but it wants media attention.

Acid Rain

.. an affect the fish in the water in two ways: directly and indirectly. Sulfuric acid directly interferes with the fish’s ability to take in salt, oxygen and nutrients crucial for daily life. Osmoregulation is the process of maintaining the delicate balance of salts and minerals in their tissues. For freshwater fish, maintaining osmoregulation is key in their survival. Acid molecules, which are a result of acid rain in the water, cause mucus to form in the fishs gills. This in return prevents the fish from absorbing oxygen.

If the fish are unable to absorb oxygen, the consequence could be the eventual suffocation of fish and the low pH could throw off the balance of salts in the fish tissue. Salt levels such, as the calcium (Ca+2), levels of some fish cannot be maintained due to pH change. This can results in poor reproduction. The fishs eggs produced would be damaged, they could either be too brittle or too weak. The decreased Ca+2 levels also result in weak spines and deformities.

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Acid Rain is very tragic when it come to the life of fish, but when nitrogen-containing fertilizers are washed off into the lakes, the nitrogen stimulates the growth of algae, which logically would mean an increase in oxygen production, thus benefiting the fish. This can be beneficial, but because of increased deaths in the fish population due to acid rain, the decomposition process uses up a lot of the oxygen, which leaves less for the surviving fish to take in. Indirectly, sulfuric acid releases heavy metals present in soils to be dissociated and released. For example, aluminum (Al+2) is harmless as part of a compound, but because acid rain causes Al+2 to be released into the soils and gradually into the lakes, it becomes lethal to the health of the fish in the lakes on its life forms. Some of the pH level effects are ; At pH level six basic forms of food die off for fish. The food sources cannot survive at this pH level. At a pH level of 5.5 there are more deformed adult fish due to lack of nutrients.

The fish cannot reproduce. The young have difficulty staying alive, and eventually the older fish will die of suffocation. At pH level 5.0 the whole fish population will die off. At pH level 4.0 all life forms will die. Fish, being one of the most important members of the food chain, provide nourishment for other creators.

Since acid rain is affecting fish, this makes it dangerous for other creators including humans to eat the fish. Other sea dwellers such as amphibians are also affected by acid ran. The amphibian embryos have membranes that are too tough because of the acids, such that they are unable to break through at the proper time. So, they continue to grow, only to have deformed spines. The affects on water forms are the greatest and most tragic of all of the things that acid rain affects.

Acid rain affects all that eat seafood or any other water dwelling life form. Another things impacted by acid rain are forests and soil. When acid rain falls onto the earth’s surface it causes a lot of damage. The soil is robbed of some vital things. Aluminum that is always present in the soil is freed, and the toxic element is absorbed by the roots of trees. The trees in turn are starved and deprived of vital nutrients such as calcium and magnesium.

Sulfuric acid returns to earth. When the sulfuric acid returns, it clogs up the stomata in the leaves, stopping photosynthesis. In addition, severe frosts may also further aggravate this situation. With sulfur dioxide, ammonia and ozone present in the air, the frost-hardiness of trees are reduced. Ammonia mixes with sulfur dioxide and forms ammonium sulfate. This product forms on the surface of the trees. When ammonium sulfate reaches the soils, it reacts to form both sulfuric and nitric acid.

Such conditions also stimulate the growth of fungi and pests like the ambrosia beetle. When trees are under such stress, they release chemicals such as terpenes which attract the ambrosia beetle. Acid rain also affects the atmosphere. The affects on the atmosphere are mostly due to dry deposition that was mentioned earlier. The floating particles can contribute to haze, which affects visibility.

This makes navigation especially hard for air pilots. The acid haze also inhibits the flow of sunlight from the sun to the earth and back. Acid rain also affects architecture. Architecture is affected by both dry precipitation and wet precipitation. When these particles land on building they eat into the concrete eventually destroying them.

This is a potential danger because the infrastructure of the buildings can be destroyed, thus hurting people occupying the building Acid Rain also has a direct affect on you and I. The SO2 and NO2 emissions give rise to respiratory problems such as asthma, dry coughs, headaches, eye, nose and throat irritations. The indirect affect of acid rain are on the food that we eat. Acid rain is absorbed in fruits, and in the tissues of animals. Although these toxic metals do not directly affect the animals, they have serious affects on humans when they are being consumed.

Acid rain is a huge problem which affects every person living in the world in some sort of way. Acid rain is a problem that can be reduced but not stopped completely due to the needs of our modern society. Some ways that we could help to reduce acid rain is by recycling, carpooling, and reducing. Acid rain is a problem that can be controlled but it is up to the people of earth to control the problem. Bibliography 1. Heij, G.J.

and J.W. Erisman (Editors). Acid Rain Research: Do we have enough answers? New York: Elsevier, 1995. 2.Comptons New Media Encyclopedia 1996 3. White, James C.

(Editor). Acid Rain: The Relationship between Sources and Receptors. New York: Elsevier, 1988. 4.FAQ on Acid Rain(http://ns.doe.ca/aeb/ssd/acid/acidFAQ.html) Science.

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