Acid Rain

.. ish in the water in two ways: directly and indirectly. Sulfuric acid directly interferes with the fish’s ability to take in salt, oxygen and nutrients crucial for daily life.

Osmoregulation is the process of maintaining the delicate balance of salts and minerals in their tissues. For freshwater fish, maintaining osmoregulation is key in their survival.Acid molecules, which are a result of acid rain in the water, cause mucus to form in the fishs gills.

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This in return prevents the fish from absorbing oxygen. If the fish are unable to absorb oxygen, the consequence could be the eventual suffocation of fish and the low pH could throw off the balance of salts in the fish tissue. Salt levels such, as the calcium (Ca+2), levels of some fish cannot be maintained due to pH change. This can results in poor reproduction.The fishs eggs produced would be damaged, they could either be too brittle or too weak.

The decreased Ca+2 levels also result in weak spines and deformities. Acid Rain is very tragic when it come to the life of fish, but when nitrogen-containing fertilizers are washed off into the lakes, the nitrogen stimulates the growth of algae, which logically would mean an increase in oxygen production, thus benefiting the fish. This can be beneficial, but because of increased deaths in the fish population due to acid rain, the decomposition process uses up a lot of the oxygen, which leaves less for the surviving fish to take in. Indirectly, sulfuric acid releases heavy metals present in soils to be dissociated and released.

For example, aluminum (Al+2) is harmless as part of a compound, but because acid rain causes Al+2 to be released into the soils and gradually into the lakes, it becomes lethal to the health of the fish in the lakes on its life forms. Some of the pH level effects are ; At pH level six basic forms of food die off for fish. The food sources cannot survive at this pH level. At a pH level of 5.

5 there are more deformed adult fish due to lack of nutrients. The fish cannot reproduce. The young have difficulty staying alive, and eventually the older fish will die of suffocation.At pH level 5.0 the whole fish population will die off. At pH level 4.

0 all life forms will die. Fish, being one of the most important members of the food chain, provide nourishment for other creators. Since acid rain is affecting fish, this makes it dangerous for other creators including humans to eat the fish. Other sea dwellers such as amphibians are also affected by acid ran.The amphibian embryos have membranes that are too tough because of the acids, such that they are unable to break through at the proper time. So, they continue to grow, only to have deformed spines.

The affects on water forms are the greatest and most tragic of all of the things that acid rain affects. Acid rain affects all that eat seafood or any other water dwelling life form. Another things impacted by acid rain are forests and soil. When acid rain falls onto the earth’s surface it causes a lot of damage.The soil is robbed of some vital things. Aluminum that is always present in the soil is freed, and the toxic element is absorbed by the roots of trees. The trees in turn are starved and deprived of vital nutrients such as calcium and magnesium.

Sulfuric acid returns to earth. When the sulfuric acid returns, it clogs up the stomata in the leaves, stopping photosynthesis.In addition, severe frosts may also further aggravate this situation. With sulfur dioxide, ammonia and ozone present in the air, the frost-hardiness of trees are reduced. Ammonia mixes with sulfur dioxide and forms ammonium sulfate. This product forms on the surface of the trees. When ammonium sulfate reaches the soils, it reacts to form both sulfuric and nitric acid.

Such conditions also stimulate the growth of fungi and pests like the ambrosia beetle. When trees are under such stress, they release chemicals such as terpenes which attract the ambrosia beetle.Acid rain also affects the atmosphere. The affects on the atmosphere are mostly due to dry deposition that was mentioned earlier. The floating particles can contribute to haze, which affects visibility. This makes navigation especially hard for air pilots. The acid haze also inhibits the flow of sunlight from the sun to the earth and back.

Acid rain also affects architecture. Architecture is affected by both dry precipitation and wet precipitation. When these particles land on building they eat into the concrete eventually destroying them. This is a potential danger because the infrastructure of the buildings can be destroyed, thus hurting people occupying the building Acid Rain also has a direct affect on you and I.

The SO2 and NO2 emissions give rise to respiratory problems such as asthma, dry coughs, headaches, eye, nose and throat irritations.The indirect affect of acid rain are on the food that we eat. Acid rain is absorbed in fruits, and in the tissues of animals. Although these toxic metals do not directly affect the animals, they have serious affects on humans when they are being consumed.

Acid rain is a huge problem which affects every person living in the world in some sort of way. Acid rain is a problem that can be reduced but not stopped completely due to the needs of our modern society.Some ways that we could help to reduce acid rain is by recycling, carpooling, and reducing. Acid rain is a problem that can be controlled but it is up to the people of earth to control the problem. Bibliography 1. Heij, G.J.

and J.W. Erisman (Editors).Acid Rain Research: Do we have enough answers? New York: Elsevier, 1995. 2.

Comptons New Media Encyclopedia 1996 3. White, James C. (Editor). Acid Rain: The Relationship between Sources and Receptors.New York: Elsevier, 1988.

4.FAQ on Acid Rain(http://ns.doe.ca/aeb/ssd/acid/acidFAQ.html).