A Computerized World

COMPUTERS
A Computerized World
Computers play an important role in this modern society. All people around the world are forced the computer age nowadays. Since the first computer was made in the late 1950s, which I heard that was came from the Chinese Abacus, the technology has developed extremely. Computers are everywhere and control a great deal of our living environment. More and more areas are being taken over by the computer. Not able to use a computer is a serious handicap with ramifications in all areas of life. Therefore, if people do not know computers or do not know how to use them it means that they are not prepared for the future. They will fall behind our advancing society. Computers have been applied to industry, agriculture, political affairs, economy, military, science and many other fields; it is becoming more and more important. It is reason why I feel; I need to know more about computers such as why computer is useful, history of computer, and Internet.

COMPUTERS ARE USEFUL IN OUR LIFE
Nowadays, no matter what the professions, a mainstay of the companies prefers to hire employees who basically need to know how to operate computers. Knowledge of computers has become a basic requirement in job descriptions. As computers are capable of handling large amounts of data in a very short time, they are well suited for word processing. For instance, medical officers use computer to record patients data for finding them easier and more
conveniently. Banks also use computers to store information for consumers to know their account conveniently and orderly, etc. The government agencies are the one who use computers most because they need to record confidential data, for instance, the military, and the U.S Census Bureau, etc. The business also use computer password system in the companies that to avoid other companies stealing their business secrets. Therefore, the secret data will not let out to other countries or companies. Since a small diskette can contain much more data than a written page, and it takes less place, I think it will not be too long all the paper-archives are replaced by magnetic tapes and diskettes. It is possible to get the American telephone book on just one diskette.

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HISTORY OF COMPUTERS
About two hundred years before, the word computer started to appear in the dictionary. Some people even did not know what is a computer. However, most of the people today not just knowing what is a computer, but understand how to use a computer. Now people may ask a question where is computer originated from? Todays complex computers are not really intelligent at all. The intelligence is in the people who design them. Therefore, in order to understand the intelligence of computers, we must first take a look at the history of computers.

The predecessor to todays computers was nothing like the machines we use today.It was the adding machine, invented by Blaise Pascal, a brilliant French mathematician and physicist. In 1642, Pascal decided to make his fathers job at a local tax office easier.The result was a simple mechanical adding machine. There were some improvements to the adding machine over the years, but it was not until English mathematics professor, Charles Babbage created a computer-like machine, Analytical Engine; designed in 1834. It was a remarkable device for its time. In fact, the Analytical Engine required so much power and would have been so much more complex than the manufacturing methods of the time, it could never be built. No more than twenty years after Babbages death, Herman Hollerith, an American inventor designed an electromechanical machine that used punched cards to tabulate the 1890 U.S. Census. His tabulation machine was so successful; he formed IBM to supply them.The computers of those times worked with gears and mechanical computation.

Unlike todays chip computers, the first computers were non-programmable, electromechanically machines. Not one would ever confuse the limited power of those early machines with the wonder of the human brain. An example was the ENIAC, or Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. It was a huge, room-sized machine, designed to calculate artillery-firing tables for the military. ENIAC was built with more than 19,000 vacuum tubes, nine times the amount ever used before this. The internal memory of ENIAC was a paltry twenty decimal numbers of ten digits each. (Todays average home computer can hold roughly 20,480 times this amount.)
Today, the chip-based computer easily packs the power of more than 10,000 ENIACs into a silicon chip the size of an infants fingertip. Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce invented the chip in 1958, but their crude devices looked nothing like the sleek, paper-thin devices common now. The first integrated circuit had but four transistors and was half an inch long and narrower than a toothpick. Chips found in todays PCs, such as the Motorola 68040, cram more than 1.2 million transistors onto a chip half an inch square.
The ENIAC was an extremely expensive, huge and complex machine, while PCs new are shoebox-sized gadgets costing but a few thousand dollars. Because of the incredible miniaturization, that has taken place, and because of the seemingly magical speed at which a computer accomplishes its tasks, many people look at the computer as a replacement for the human brain. Once again, though, the computer can only accomplish its amazing feats by breaking down every task into its simplest possible choices. However, in fact, the computer has influenced every aspect of peoples lives. It has affected the way people work and play. It has made everyones life easier by doing difficult work for people. The computer truly is one of the most incredible inventions in history.

INTERNET
The Internet is a network of networks that interconnects computers around the world, supporting both business and residential users. It is also an extraordinary learning and entertainment tool that, when used properly, and significantly enhance a users ability to gather information. Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) started the Internet. It was a project under taken by the Department of Defense (DOD) in 1969.It started as an experiment to link together DOD and military research including Universities doing military-funded research.

The ARPANET was very successful, and every university in the country wanted to sign up because so many people wanted to use the Net. ARPANET started getting hard to manage, especially with many university sites on it. Therefore, it was broken into two parts: MILNET, which had all the military sites, and ARPANET, which had all the nonmilitary sites. The two networks remained connected, however, the technical scheme called IP (Internet Protocol), which enabled traffic to be routed from one net to another as needed. All the networks connected by IP in the Internet speak IP, so they can all exchange messages.Even though there were only two networks at that time, IP was made to allow thousands of networks.
What the Internet does, it transmit data from one computer to another. Each time a host wants to send a message to another host, either the receiver is on a network where the first host is directly connected then the message will be sent directly.Otherwise the sender would send the message to a host that can forward it. The forwarding host delivers the message directly or they can pass it to another host. Usually messages are sent to more than a dozen forwarders on its way from one part of the Net to another. The Internet is a way for many different religions, societies, and races to meld together and share views, experiences, and new inventions across thousands of miles. Once you enter the Cyber-world, everybody is equal, deserves the same respect, and the same rules apply to all users.

I like Internet because it is very resourceful. You can be entertained or can be used as a teaching aid. I use the Internet all the time to either talk to people, transfer files, or to look up information for school reporter or projects. There are many different ways that you can log onto the Internet. The most commonly used is through an ISP. Some of which are AT&T WorldNet, and IBM Net. You can also access the Internet through on-line programs such as America On-line, CompuServe and Net Zero. These programs are popular and widely used. Anyone who has a computer, modern and an Internet program can use the Internet and it is a resourceful tool for any student who needs to the research. Many schools have the Internet in class to learn from and have fun at the same time.
COMPUTER AND PRICES
There are thousand computers are in the computer stores. These computers are different in operating systems, brands, style, and prices. The most heard systems are IBM-compatible computer and Macintosh (Mac) made by Apple Computers and several other companies that make Mac clones.The difference between these two computers that is each run different operating systems and is generally incompatible. The vast majority-over 90%-of PCs sold today are IBM-compatible. Because of this, there is much more software available for an IBM-compatible than there is for the Mac. That clone is a valid reason that many people want to buy the IBM-compatible. Of course, there are also many other popular brand computers such as Dell, Intel, and Compaq.

The prices of computer are varying; it is depend on what kind of brands and hardware (hardware is anything that pertains to the physical components or the equipment that make up a computer system such as, monitor and modern, etc.), and software (software includes all programs such as, WordPerfect, and Windows, etc.) you choice. If we take a look at computers stores, you will see the prices are so difference from $599.99 to $4000. Be more specific, Desktop computers are about $600-$2000, Notebook computers about $2000-$3000, and Portables computers about $1200-$4200. Here are the prices that shown in November through December the WIZ computer store.


COMPUTER PRICES IN THE WIZ SALE BOOKNovember through December 2000
BrandsPricesTypesDetails
Apple Computer$1499.99DesktopG3 500MHz/128MB/30GB/56K Modem 4xDVD/8MB Video RAM/Cable Modem
Compaq$2099.99Notebook600MHz PentiumIII/64MB Ram/8MBVideo10GB Hard Drive/56K Modem/DVD-ROM
Hewlett Packard$789.97Desktop 667MHz Intel Celeron Processor/64MB RAM40x CD-RAM Drive/ 56Kmodem, etc.

Sony$1649.97Desktop 800MHz Intel Pentium III/128MB RAM40GB Hard Drive/16xDVD/56Kmodem, etc.


WHAT I LEARNED
By writing this research paper, I understood more about computers such as what is the difference between PC and Mac, how internet work and who make the first computer. It was reinforced my personal knowledge of computers. And some of the information are very beneficial to me. I remember my first computer bought two years ago. During that time, I did not know any thing about computer. The only thing I knew it was the computer could type a lot of words and save in a small disk. After two years playing my computer, I learned many things from it. But I still dont know what make my computer so useful and interesting. But I also found out that my first computer did not cost the price that I paid for it. I felt, I fooled by the sale person. After I done this research, I am not only know about computer but also help me become an informative computer consumer. Next time, if I would like to buy my second computer, I will know what I want and what is useful for me.

COMPUTER IN BUSINESS
Since the end of World War II, the computer industry has grown form a standing start into one of the biggest and most profitable industries in the United States. It now comprises thousands of companies, making everything from multi-million dollar high-speed supercomputers to printout paper and floppy disks. It employs millions of people and generates tens of billions of dollars in sales each year.Today the computer plays an essential role in almost all business information exchanges over distance. Almost all modern switching and routing equipment today is computer operated. Business computer networks allow for the integration of business processes over widespread around the world, and had created a burst in the development of global business enterprises. For example, telecommunication provides the international business (all business activities that involve exchanges across national boundaries) shortens the time and easier way to respond to consumer needs on other countries. Another important role that computers play in business is Internet, which offers huge information for business such as information resource (tells mangers of the business how effectively the other resources are being combined and used).It is impossible not to imagine any medium-sized of larger business today that does not require computers.

IN CONCLUSION
There are more positive aspects than negative of doing this project because from doing this kind of project encourages me to do the research. Even though it did not help me reinforce to the course, the information that I had researched was useful for my future. But one thing that I dislike this assignment is too long and the format such as bibliography, footnote. It almost drove me crazy because I never write this kind of paper before. In order to learn the reporter format my computer became the experimental tool.

The first computers were simple numerical processors. As technology improved, computer hardware and software was development enabling the computer to perform complex computations that resulted in the various computer applications today. Because of this point, we have looked at computers as extensions of our minds. Programmers and developers have tried to make computers think in the same sequential manner as humans. As computers get more powerful and we learn more about adapting them, they will become fully and completely integrated with our lives. Most of us could not imagine a world without computers. Computers will be a part of our future.